Class: Sordariomycetes Subclass: Lulworthiomycetidae
Class: Sordariomycetes Subclass: Lulworthiomycetidae
Family: Thyridariaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Halotthiaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Neocamarosporiaceae Wanas., Wijayaw., Crous & K.D. Hyde, Studies in Mycology 87: 245 (2017), Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Morosphaeriaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Kirschsteiniotheliaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Lentitheciaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
Family: Pleosporaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae
History of Marine Mycology
INTERNATIONAL MARINE MYCOLOGY SYMPOSIUM
Willy Höhnk was responsible for setting up the International Marine Mycology Symposium (IMMS) at the Instituts fűr Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. This was an imaginative concept and greatly furthered interests in marine fungi by bringing together mycologists from around the world.
The inception of the IMFMS was due to the foresight of Dr. Willy Höhnk (Fig. 1) and his colleagues at the Institute fűr Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany who organised the first meeting in 17-19 October 1966. The proceeding of this meeting was published in Veröffentlighungen des Instituts für Meereforschung (1968) and edited by Dr. Alwin Gaertner. Sadly, I was unaware of this meeting, but it was attended by a wide range of mycologists.
The 2nd Marine Mycology Symposium (IMMS) was held in Bremerhaven, 11-16 September 1972 and was well attended with some 54 participants. The proceedings of the meeting were published in the institute inhouse journal Veröffentlichingen des Instituts fűr Meeresforschung in two volumes in 1974. Volume one was devoted to zoosporic fungi (both chytrids and thraustochytrids) and volume 2 to the Ascomycetes and their asexual morphs. It brought together key marine mycologists of the time: Fred Sparrow, Jan Kohlmeyer, Gill Hughes, Sam Meyers (Figs. 2-4), Dave Porter, Paul Kirk, and enabled me to meet the marine mycologist based in Bremerhaven. It also included many chytrid researchers such as E. Schnepe, K. Huth, D.K. Chakrarvarty, as well as Guy Willoughby on freshwater chytrids. This meeting was notable for the number of papers (9) devoted to the Thraustochytrids, a group that had previously been poorly served. The genus Thraustochytrium was described by F.K. Sparrow in 1936 and Fred was present at this meeting and gave a talk on Haliphthorus species. Another colleague who attend this meeting was H.J. Swart from Australia, who kept us amused with his cartoons of daily events at the meeting.
Fig. 1. Willy Höhnk
Fig. 2-3. Fred Sparrow (left) at the Bremerhaven meeting. Jan Kohlmeyer
Fig. 4. Sam Meyers and Gareth Jones discussing the programme.
An account of the meeting in Bremerhaven in the local press,
With Fred Sparrow and Willy Höhnk
Morehead City, USA was the venue for 3rd IMMS meeting in 1979 with 60 participants and organised by Jan Kohlmeyer and his students. The proceedings included 39 papers published in Botanica Marina, volume 23, 1980. The emphasis was again on thraustochytrids, true chytrids (especially their ultrastructure) and some of the earliest papers on the ultrastructure of the ascospores of marine ascomycetes and their dispersal, settlement and attachment to surfaces. This was lively meeting attended by notable marine mycologists including Jack Fell, Terry Johnson (Figure 5), Steve Newell, Geoff Pugh, Margaret Fries, and C.V. Subramanian. In many ways this was an exceptional meeting for the variety of topics discussed and those that attended the meeting.
Fig. 5. Terry Johnson and wife Sandy, the only meeting he attended; N. Fries,
Vincenzo Cuomo at the Morehead City meeting, on the field trip.
Fig. 6. Left: Bob Gessner, ?, R.D. Brooks Right: P.L. Sguros and student
The 4th IMMS was held in Portsmouth, UK 11-17 August 1985 when some 80 oral papers were delivered, and over 100 participants attended. We introduced a logo for the group (see heading of this article). Steve Moss edited the proceeding which was published in 1986 by Cambridge University Press. Thirty papers were included in the book with an emphasis on the physiology of marine fungi, ultrastructural studies and biogeography. Tropical marine fungi were first introduced to the group by Kevin Hyde based on his work in the Seychelles. It was a pleasure to see Keisuke Tubaki, Akira Nakagiri and Paul Kirk attending (Figures 9). At this meeting the Erica Kohlmeyer (Figure 8) Prize was first awarded, the recipient being Francis Molina from the Philippines.
This was an exceptionally well attended meeting with six symposia: “Biology and physiology of Layrinthulales and Thraustochytriales” “Taxonomy of the higher marine fungi” “Ecology of marine fungi” “Physiology and biochemistry of marine fungi” “Applies topics and biotechnology” and “World distribution of marine fungi”. Figures 8-10 includes some of the delegates attending the meeting.
Fig. 7. Informal get-together at the Portsmouth meeting:
back row Lilian Vrijmoed, Sundari, Brigit and Jan Kohlmeyer,
front row Teck Koon Tan, Doris Au, Gareth, Aisyah Alias, and Kevin Hyde.
Fig. 8. Official dinner.
Back row: Frances Molina (Winner of Erica Kohlmeyer Prize), Flor Uyenco, Marion Jones, Local guests, Steve Moss.
Back to camera, Jan Kohlmeyer.
Fig. 9. Left: Paul Kirk and his wife with a presentation photograph to the
Lord Mayor of Portsmouth at IMMS 4;
Right: Norman Whitney and J.K. Misra
Fig. 10. J.K. Misra, Gunther Bahnweg, Geoff Pugh, B.H. Borse.
For the 5th IMMS Gill Hughes, Tom Booth and David Miller organised the meeting in Vancouver 20-26 August 1989. 36 papers were delivered on various topics and the proceedings were again published in Botanica Marina. The Erica Kohlmeyer prize was shared between Sue Stanley for her paper on marine algicolous fungi and Lisa Muehistein on the wasting disease of Zostera marina. Many papers were devoted to the physiology of marine fungi with fewer papers on fungal taxonomy. New observations were made on a zooplankton parasite Thalassomyces (Howard Whisler), fungi in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice (Karsten Schaumann), coral invasive fungi (Lata Raghukumar) and terrestrial fungi in marine habitats (Gill Hughes). Gill Hughes was the organiser of the meeting with six symposia: “Symbionts and pathogens of marine plants” “Fungi in mangrove habitats” “Physiology and Biochemistry” “Germination, growth and antibiotics” “Ecology and distribution” and “Marine ascomycetes”. New faces to IMMS included Sue Stanley, Sue Quelch, Sophia Grasso, Tina Farrant (see Figure 11).
Fig. 11. IMFMS 5th meeting Vancouver, Canada, 1989, group photograph
Front row: Philomena Curran, David Jennings, Lilian Vrijmoed, Lata Raghukumar, Karsten Schaumann
Second row: Harold Whisler, Diane Wagner, Tina Farrant, Sue Read, Lisa, ?
Back row: Gill Hughes, Gareth Jones, ? Steve Moss. ?, ? Ana Marie Ulken, Peter Molitoris, ?
Fig.12. Left: Mrs Karsten Schaumann, Lilian Vrijmoed, Lata Raghukumar;
Right: groups at official dinner: Karsten Schaumann, David Jennings, Mrs. Schaumann,
Gareth Jones, Lilian Vrijmoed, Peter Molitoris Mrs. Gilbert Hughes, ?,
Gill Hughes (organiser).
Fig.13. Winners of the Erica Kohlmeyer prize at the Vancouver meeting:
Sue Stanley and Liza with Gareth Jones
1995 saw the return of the symposium (6th IMMS) to Portsmouth 8 to 15 July and held at the University of Portsmouth and organised by Gareth Jones, Steve Moss, Julian Mitchell and Graham Bremer. This was a well-attended meeting and the programme included 9 sessions and two offered papers sessions: 70 invited presentations were delivered, 22 offered oral presentations and 24 posters. Sessions included those on Geographical distribution of aquatic fungi; Structure and phylogeny of aquatic fungi; Mechanisms of adaptation to aquatic environments and Pathology of marine and freshwater organisms. Keynote talks were by Sam Meyers (Fifty years of marine mycology: highlights of the past, projections for the coming century) and Terence Ingold (Aquatic hyphomycetes: a retrospect). Other speakers included: K. Suberkropp, K. Hatai, Meredith Blackwell, Vincent Demoulin, T. Cavalier-Smith and Joey Spatafora. Joint winners of the Erica Kohlmeyer Prize were D.J. Clement (Heterogenous expression of Dendryphiella salina DNA sequences in Aspergillus nidulans and their effects on growth, polyol content and salt sensitivity) and Tracey McKeown (Ultrastructure of the melanised spores of Corollospora fusca). The meeting included a visit to the Mary Rose Museum with a reception hosted by the President of the British Mycological Society, Juliet Frankland. This meeting was especially well attended
Fig. 14. Group photograph outside the University of Portsmouth,
Department of Biological Sciences building.
Fig. 15. Erica Kohlmeyer prize winners: Tracey McKeown, D.J. Clement,
Fig. 16. Dave Padgett, Laura Padgett, Margaret Rule. Mrs Schaumann,
Karsten Schaumann at the Portsmouth meeting.
Hong Kong was the venue for the 7th IMFMS, 4-9 July 1999 and held at City University Hong Kong and our first meeting in Asia. The conference was exceedingly well supported and organised by Lilian Vrijmoed and her colleagues at the City University of Hong Kong and the University of Hong Kong. Keynote talks were given by Gareth Jones, Carol Shearer, Gordon Beaks, Steve Moss and Steve Newell. Some 48 oral talks were presented in 8 sessions, 19 poster presentations, a round table discussion on “What is a marine fungus (chaired by Gareth Jones and Paul Jensen) and a field trip to Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve. The British Mycological Society hosted a reception prior to the conference dinner. The joint winners of the Erica Kohlmeyer Prize were Jinx Campbell (Molecular phylogeny of the Halosphaeriaceae) and Eduardo Leano (Why are Halophythphora species well adapted to mangrove habitats?). A poster entitled “Then building blocks of marine mycology” by Gareth Jones, Ka-Lai Pang and Lilian Vrijmoed, listed key marine mycologists (with 81 photographs) from 1936 (Fred Sparrow) to1998 (three postgraduate students from Hong Kong). This was a particularly well attended conference and much commented on afterwards, especially the conference dinner at the Peking Garden, Central, Hong Kong.
This time we included freshwater mycology (IMFMS) in the meeting. Some 200 participants attended the meeting from all parts of the world. There were seven sessions: “Freshwater higher fungi” “Marine fungi” “Pathogenic zoosporic organisms” “Physiology and Biochemistry” “Biotechnological applications” and “The biology of Thraustochytrids” An interesting item in the programme book was the article entitled “The building blocks of marine mycology’ by E.B.G. Jones, K.L. Pang and L.L.P. Vrijmoed”.
Fig. 17. Group meeting Hong Kong meeting.
Fig. 18. Field trip to Mai Po Mangroves, Hong Kong:
Stephan Buschai and Ka-Lai Pang
Fig. 19. Upper Photo: Group of young mycologists student helpers, Keith Fan,
Sung Yuan Hsieh, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Somsak Sivichai, two student helpers, ?, ?,
Ka-Lai Pang (all now have their Ph.D.’s).
Lower photo: Gareth Jones presenting a bouquet of flowers to the chairperson of the meeting at the official dinner.
Fig. 18. Kevin Hyde, Lilian Vrijmoed, Gareth Jones and Nora Tam (local organisers)
greeting guests at the dinner in the traditional Chinese way.
Central sitting Brigitte and Jan Kohlmeyer
The 8th IMFMS was held 7-12 July 2001 in Hurgada, Egypt and organized by South Valley University, Egypt. The symposium was attended by 97 scientists (55 international and 42 local researchers) and topics covered during the symposium included: tropical aquatic mycology, straminopiles, molecular phylogenetics, physiology and biochemistry, biotechnology and fungal diversity. The Erica Kohlmeyer prize was awarded to Alga Zuccaro for her molecular study of endophytes of Fucus serratus. Among those attending was: Bill Fenical, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University California; Dave Porter; and Leka Manoch, Thailand.
Fig. 19. Mohamed and Felix Bachloer at the Hurgada meeting.
Fig. 20. Lilian Vrijmoed with research students from City University of Hong Kong: Wen Luo, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Leano, Ka-Lai Pang.
Fig. 21. Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed El-Nagdy, Hassan El-Sharouny,
Farida El-Hissy and Ahmed Hamad, at the Hong Kong meeting.
Fig. 22. Group photograph taken at the meeting in Egypt 2001
Chiang Mai, Thailand was the venue for the 9th IMFMS and held on 14-19 November 2004 with a selection of papers published in Botanica Marina and edited by Gareth Jones. Forty oral presentations were made at the symposium in six sessions with four devoted to marine fungi. At this meeting there was a marked coverage of tropical marine fungi, their biodiversity, production of docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrids and wood degrading enzymes. Ka-Lai Pang and Julian Mitchell provided a review article on “Molecular approaches for assessing fungal diversity in marine substrata”.
Fig. 23. Group photo for the Penang meeting of IMFMS.
Fig. 24. Penang meeting logo.
10th IMFMS was hosted by Aisyah Alias in Penang in December 2007, the only meeting to date for me to have missed (to date!)! Seven symposia included the topics bioactive compounds, ecology and phylogeny of freshwater and marine fungi. Thirty-seven oral papers were presented but the Eric Kohlmeyer and Molitoris prizes were not contested this year. Papers on fungi from Arctic, Antarctic, temperate and trop tropical locations were introduced as well as those from deep sea-waters. This is one meeting I did not attend.
Fig. 25. Attendance at a lecture at the meeting in Penang 2007
Front row: Frithjof Kuepper, Rainer Ebel and Siti Aisyah Alias (Organiser)
Co-chairmen of a session on aquatic fungi, Penang 2007.
Fig. 26. Group photograph of the combined Asian Mycological Congress
and IMFMS Penang meeting.
Fig. 27. Upper photo: Somsak Sivichai and Jariya Sakayaroj chair of IMFMS session
Lower photo: opening ceremony of AMS/IMFMS Viki and Kevin.
The 11th IMFMS was held in Taichung, Taiwan, 15-19 November, 2009 organised by Sung-Yuan Hsieh and Sheng–Hua Wu and was particularly well attended with some 200 participants. The meeting was well attended with five sessions and 22 talks devoted to Taxonomy and phylogeny of marine fungi; Phylogeny and ecology of lower fungi; Ecology, taxonomy and phylogeny of freshwater fungi, Bioactive compounds of aquatic fungi and Ecology of marine and mangrove fungi. In a significant change many papers were on the fungal phylogeny and highlighting the occurrence of new lineages of marine fungi. In contrast to earlier symposia most papers focused on tropical fungi. A selection of the papers (14) presented were subsequently published by Botanica Marina (Volume 53, 2010) and edited by Gareth Jones and Ka-Lai Pang, with a review article by Lata Raghukumar on “Deep-sea fungi: occurrence, diversity and adaptation”. Other papers focused on fungal biodiversity of mangroves, bioactive compounds from marine fungi and the effect of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the growth and cell morphology of thraustochytrid organisms.
Fig. 28. Group photograph of the participants at the AMC and IMFMS meeting Taiwan.
Fig. 29. Aisyah Allias, Marion Jones. Gareth Jones and
Satinee Suetrong at the Taiwan meeting.
Incheon, South Korea was the host country for the 12th IMFMS on 7-11 August 2011 and organised by Yang-Soo Lee and Natarajan Velmurugan. Sadly, the symposium attracted few participants with only four sessions. Gareth Jones gave the plenary lecture on “Marine fungal diversity: How many species are there?” Nineteen oral presentation were made with biodiversity and phylogeny again dominated the topics covered. A workshop was organised by Lilian Vrijmoed entitled “Outcomes-based teaching and learning in mycology: Enhancement of learning through assessment” The meeting was so poorly attended that discussion took place at ways to rejuvenate the group or to cease having meetings.
Fig. 30. Group photograph of the participants of AMC and IMMFMS meeting South Korea.
Fig. 31. Group photograph of the IMMS meeting at the South Korea symposium.
Beijing, PR China hosted the 13th IMFMS meeting in 2013. The marine session was not well attended although the AMC attracted a good number of participants. Four sessions were organised including ‘Systematics and biodiversity of aquatic fungi’, ‘Cryptic diversity revealed by emerging technologies’, ‘Fungal-like organisms’ and ‘Biochemistry and physiology of aquatic fungi’.
Fig. 32. Ka-Lai Pang, Liangdon Guo, Gareth Jones, SunYan Lee,
Sung Hsieth enjoying a meal at the BeiJing meeting
Two meetings of Marine Fungal Natural Products Consortium (MaFNaP) have been held both with a marine mycology content. The 2nd MaFNaP was held in 2015 in Nantes, France, 22-24 July 2015. This meeting followed on from an initial workshop held with a smaller group in Canada, on Prince Edward Island, and a very strong will to rally all scientists working on this research theme had been felt. The Sea, Molecules, Health team (MMS), especially the group working on marine fungi volunteered to host and organize this event in Nantes at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, University of Nantes, in partnership with Ifremer.
This meeting focused on metabolites from marine fungi and attended by many new faces to IMMS. Two sessions were devoted to marine fungal biodiversity. The conference was organized around topics related to marine fungi, and bioresource for tomorrow:
Marine fungal biodiversity and collection
Ecology and physiology of marine fungi
Marine-sourced fungal chemo-diversity
From Genes to Molecules: "omics" methods
Marine fungal biodiscovery
Biosynthesis and total synthesis
Fig. 33. Group photograph at the Nantes meeting of MaFNaP group.
Fig. 34. Left: Catherine and Nicolas;
Right: Rainer Ebel at the Nantes meeting.
Fig. 35. Gareth Jones presenting the best poster and oral presentation prizes
at the Nantes meeting (Teppo Rama).
Fig. 36. Professors Yves François Pouchus and Gareth Jones in discussion!
Fig. 37. Summary of number of participants at the Nantes meeting.
A second meeting on marine fungi in 2015 was held in Goa, India in September and held in parallel with the Asian Mycological Congress. A limited number of sessions were devoted to marine fungi.
Fig. 38. Delegates attending the Asian Mycological Congress in Viet Nam 2017
There was no meeting of IMMS
The 15th IMFMS was held in Xiamen, China 26-28th September 2018, hosted by the Third Institute of Oceanography, with circa 100 participants from 10 countries. Professors Luo and Pang organised a stimulating and varied programme with keynote lecture by Gareth Jones, Guang-Yi Wang, Lei Cai, Zong-Hua Wang, Brandon Hassett, Gaëtan Burgaud, Yuriko Nagano, Bin-Gui Wang and Anake Kijjoa. The major theme for the meeting was fungi in the deep sea and hypothermal vents a subject not previously covered in such depth! There were many other topics covered, classification and ecology of both marine and freshwater fungi, planktonic fungi, many new taxa and bioactive secondary metabolites. Participants included regular IMFMS members as well some new faces: Brandon Hassett, Yuriko Nagano, Sanja and Leif Tibell and Anake Kijjoa. The meeting concluded with a round table discussion. Two prizes were contested with the Kohlmeyer prize for the best oral presentation awarded to Yong-Zhong Lu for his talk on A taxonomic reassessment of helicosporous hyphomycetes from freshwater habitats. The Gareth Jones prizes for the best poster was awarded to Chih-Chiao He for Diversity of fungi associated with the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea through isolation and metagenomics. Finally, congratulations to all the personnel that made this meeting such a success. We now look forward to the publication of selected papers in the Botanica Marina Special Issue later in 2019.
Opening address by Prof. Bin Chen, Associate Director of Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, PR China.
Opening keynote lecture by Gareth Jones
Gareth Jones presenting the Kohlmeyer and Gareth Jones prizes to Chih-Chiao He and to Professor Jack Liu (on behalf of Yong-Zhong Lu).
Group photograph, Xiamen, China.
I am indebted to Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Ka-Lai Pang, Jariya, Viki, for supplementary photos and for updating lapses of memory!