Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., 1988. Can. J. Bot.., 66: 1138.


Arthoniomycetes, Subclass Arthoniomycetidae






Type species:

Halographis runica Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., 1988. Can. J. Bot.., 66: 1138.

Sexual morph: saprobic, Association: crustose, endolithic, inconspicuous. Hyphae: 1.5-2.5 µm diam., forming a network in calcareous substrate, surrounding cyanobacterial cells without producing haustoria. Ascomata: 160-210 µm high, 140-200µ m wide, 1-1.5 µm long, lirellaeform, simple or irregularly branched, completely immersed in calcareous substrates, opening with a longitudinal slit, light coloured with a dark brown margin, without periphyses, single or gregarious, surrounded by cyanobacteria. Peridium: 25-35 mm thick on the sides and base, 45-75 mm around the ostiole, along the sides and base composed of loosely intertwined hyphae that are embedded in a gelatinous matrix, light brown, around the ostiolar slit forming a dark textura prismatica. Hamathecium: paraphysoid, 1-1.5 µm in diam., hyaline, branched and anastomosing, surrounded by gelatinous matrix, forming a network that tightly encloses the asci. Asci: 60-100 x 15-20 µm, 8-spored, clavate, thick-walled, bitunicate, pedunculate, nonamyloid, without apical apparatus, but with an ocular chamber, arise from an ascogenous tissue at the base of the locule. Ascospores: 17-29 x 6-9 µm, ellipsoidal to fusiform, one-septate, not constricted at the septum, hyaline. Asexual morph: Pycnidia: (spermogonia?): 95-140 µm high, 100-180 um in diam., subglobose or elongate, immersed with round or cleft-like ostiole, light brown, gregarious. Peridium:  like that of ascomata. Conidiogenous cells: 8-11 x 1-2 µm, cylindrical, phialidic, lining inside of the peridium. Conidia: 2-3 x 1-1.5 µm, ellipsoidal, one-celled, hyaline (Description: Based on Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm. (1988)).


Key references:

Ananda K, Sridhar KR (2002) Diversity if filamentous fungi on decomposing leaf and woody litter of mangrove forests in Southwest coast of India. Current Science 10: 1431-1437.

Kohlmeyer, J.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B. (1988) Halographis (Opegraphales), a new endolithic lichenoid from corals and snails. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6):1138-1141.


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
on shells of snails, worm tube, and coral rock.
Belize, India
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Halographis runica is only known from the original collection by Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1988), although it has been reported fom India by Ananda & Sridhar (2004) occurring on intertidal leaf and woody litter of mangroves. This is a completely different host material and requires further study. As there is no sequence data for this species it needs to be recollected and isolated to determine its phylogenetic placement.


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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