I. Schmidt, 1969. Nat. Naturschutz Meeklenburg, 7: 9.


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Carbosphaerella I. Schmidt, Feddes Repertorium 80 (2-3): 108 (1969).

Type species:

Carbosphaerella pleosporoides I. Schmidt, Feddes Repertorium 80 (2-3): 108 (1969)

Marine species selected:

Carbosphaerella leptosphaerioides I. Schmidt, 1969. Nat. Naturschutz Meeklenburg, 7: 9.

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 90-210 µm in diam., globose to subglobose, superficial, sometimes seated with subicula on grains of sand, with or without ostiolates, papillate or epapillate, carbonaceous, black, solitary or gregarious. Peridium: 5-12 µm thick, composed of 2-3 layers of cells, subglobose at the outside, flattened toward the inside. Necks: when present, short, conical, near the basal subiculam and pointing downward. Paraphyses: absent. Asci: 65-90 x 45-60 µm (excluding peduncle), 4-8-spored, ovoidal or obpyriform, short pedunculate, unitunicate, thin-walled, aphysoclastc, without apical apparatus, early deliquescing. Ascospores: 27-42 x 16-24 µm (excluding sheath), ellipsoidal, 3-septate, not or slightly constricted at the septa, central large cells dark brown, apical small cells hyaline or light brown; septa with a central pore, ca. 1 µm in diam.; except for the apical cells, surrounded by a gelatinous, persistent, irregular sheath, 4-12.5 µm thick, hyaline or faintly brown, appearing striated or dotted with parallel fibres embedded in a matrix; germination from the apical cells only (Description based on Kohlmeyer & Kohlmneyer (1979), and Borse et al.  (2012)). 


Key references:

Borse BD, & Pawar NS (2001) Marine fungi from Mahe (Pondicherry) India. J. Ad. Sci. technol. 8: 43-48.

Farrant CA, Hyde KD. Jones EBG (1985) Further studies in lignicolous marine fungi from Danish sand dunes. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 85: 164-167.

Johnson RG, Jones EBG, Moss ST (1984)Taxonomic studies of the Halosphaeriaceae: Remispora Linder, Marinospora Cavaliere and Carbosphaerella Schmidt. Bot Mar 27: 557-566.

Jones EBG. (1994) Fungal adhesion. Mycological Research 98: 961-981.

Jones EBG, Sakayaroj J, Sueterong S, Somrithipol A, Pang KL (2009) Classification of marine Ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Divers 35: 1-18.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Koch, J. and Jones, E.B.G. (1983) Vedboende havsvampe fra danske Kyster. Svampe 8: 49 65.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine Mycology. The Higher Fungi. Academic Press, New York.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Prasannarai K, & Sridhar KR (2001) Diversity and abundance of higher marine fungi on woody substrates along the West Coast of India. Current Science 81: 303-311.

Rees G, Jones EBG (1985) The fungi of a coastal sand dune system. Bot Mar 28: 213-220.


Key to Carbosphaerella species:

  1. Ascospores with transvers septa only                                                                        C. leptosphaerioides
  1. Ascospores with transverse and longitudinal septa                                                     C. pleosporoides


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on driftwood, especially when in contact with sand, intertidal mangrove wood.
Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hawaii, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Taiwan, UK, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Carbosphaerella is a well delineated genus based on morphological and molecular data (Jones et al. 2009), and worldwide in its distribution. The genus is defined by the morphology and ultrastructure (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) of ascospores sheath/appendage (Johnson et al. 1984). The gelatinous sheath plays an important role in the adhesion of the ascospores to substrates (Jones 1994). Molecular data places C. leptosphaerioides in the Halosphaeriaceae, grouping with Remispora pilleata and R. maritima with strong statistical support (Jones et al. 2009, 2015, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015). Ecologically, species are found superficially on wood generally associated with sand (Koch & Jones 1983, Farrant et al. 1985, Rees & Jones 1985). Mostly found on buried wood in sand, although it has also been recorded on mangrove woody litter (Shini et al. 2009-10) and intertidal wood in India (Borse & Pawar 2001, Prasannarai & Sridhar 2001).


Mushroom Research Foundation 
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