Kohlm., 1985a. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.), 94: 356


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae






Gamil. Kohlm., Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B 94: 355 (1985)

Type species:

Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., 1985a. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.), 94: 356

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 750-900 umhigh, 830-1050 µm in diam., gregarious, often growing close together, subglobose, superficial seated on a thin black stroma that covers the wood surface, ostiolate, periphysate, papillate, carbonaceous, thick-walled, appearing black, with a rough surface. Necks: 80-200 um high, 260-280 µm in diam., ostiolar canal 80-100 µm in diam. Paridium: 90-160 µm thick, 3-layered, outer layer 30-50 µm thick, golden yellow, middle layer 50-80 µm thick, deep brown, inner layer 15-25 µm thick, light brown to  hyaline, the colour is caused by pigments encrusted on the walls; the outer two layers forming textura epidermiodia, the inner layer with elongate cells and large lumina, forming textura prismatica, giving rise to pseudoparaphyses; cells of the host are occasionally incorporated in the paridium. Pseudoparaphyses: 2-3 µm in diam., trabeculate, simple between the asci, branched and anastomosing above them, inconspicuously sepatate, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci: 200-250 x 16-18 µm, 8-spored, cylindrical, long pedunculate, bitunicate, thick-walled, with an apical cup-like apparatus, IKI-negative apparatus, maturing successively on the ascogenous tissue at the bottom of the locule. Ascospores: 24-30 x 10-12 µm, ellipsoidal, 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, dark brown, lighter coloured at the thickened apices, indistinctly verruculose, thick-walled, overlapping monostichously arranged in the ascus. Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Kohlmeyer (1985)).


Key references:

Alias SA, Jones EBG (2010) Fungi from Mangroves of Malaysia. Inst Ocean Earth Sci.Uni. Malaya 1-109.

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.

Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Ariyawansha H, Liu JK, Binder M, Jayawardene N, et al. (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 63: 1-313.

Kohlmeyer J (1985) Caryosporella rhizophorae gen. et sp. nov. (Massariaceae), a marine ascomycete from Rhizophora mangle. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B. 94:355-361.

Schmit, JP, Shearer CA (2003) A checklist of mangrove associated fungi. Mycotaxon 80: 423-477.

Sridhar KR, Alias SA, Pang KL (2012) Mangrove fungi. In: Marine fungi and fungal-like organism. (eds Jones EBG, Pang KL). De Gruyter, Berlin, pp./253-272.



Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on dead mangrove wood, intertidal wood in mangroves, also animal substrates.
Australia, Belize, Brazil, Fiji, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, New Nicobar Islands, Saint Croix, South Africa, Seychelles, Surinam, Thailand.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Caryosporella rhizophorae was described from dead wood of intertidal roots and branches of Rhizophora mangle growing on three small islands off the coast of Belize (Central America) (Kohlmeyer 1985). It has subsequently been wildly collected on mangrove substrates in the tropics (Schmit & Shearer 2003, Borse et al. 2012). However, in a study of mangrove fungi in Malyasia Alias & Jones (2010) list it as a rare species, while Sridhar et al. (2012) do not list it as a core mangrove species. Kohlmeyer (1985) compared the genus to Caryospora, with affinities to Melanommatales and Massariaceae. Hyde et al. (2013) accept Caryosporella as a member of the Melanommataceae (Pleosporales) based on morphological observations. No molecular data is available for this species and further collections are required to enable sequencing to confirm its taxonomic position.


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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