Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot., 67: 1187


Ascomycetes incertae sedis




Biflua Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot., 67: 1187.

Type species:

Biflua physasca Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot., 67: 1187.

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 75-112 µm in diam., globose or slightly flattened, coriaceous, white-light buff, gregarious, light coloured, free (attached to the wood by a few or several thick-walled sinuous hyphae 4 um in width), or embedded in the outer few layers of the substratum. Ascomata with numerous appendages and lacking an ostiole. Appendages 4-8 µm high, 2-3 µm broad at the base, the stem dividing into 2-3 (-6) tapering blunt branches. Peridium:  membranous, with one wall layer, 1-2 cells thick, cells flat and angular up to 12 µm in diam. Asci: 8-spored, in a hymenium arising from a small, flat cushion of pseudoparenchymatous cells at the base of the ascomata, claviforme to cylindrical, pedunculate, persistent, and lacking an apical apparatus. On release from the ascocarp, asci expand becoming broadly claviform to oblong spherical, 68-147 x 28-57 µm with the cytoplasm or spore cluster occupying only a minor part of the ascus. Ascus tip appears granulated or viscous. Ascospores released as a cluster through a broad circular opening of the ascus tip. Ascus wall elastic and sometimes bulging from the side or tip, persistent after spore release.  Paraphyses: absent. Ascospores: unequally 2- (-4) celled, 10-16 x 6-9 µm, strongly constricted at the septum, hyaline, with a uniform mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph: undetermined (Description based on Koch & Jones (1989)).


Key references:

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Koch J, Jones EBG (1989) The identity of Crinigera maritima and three new genera of marine cleistothecial ascomycetes. Can. J. Bot. 67: 1183-1197.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on intertidal driftwood, especially in contact with sand, also on intertidal leaf and woody litter of mangroves.
China, Denmark, Japan, India.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Although this ascomycete has been collected many times in Denmark (Koch and Jones, unpublished data) we have been unable to isolate it or obtain sufficient DNA to enable sequencing. Thus, the precise taxonomic placement of this fungus remains unresolved. Dr Jorgen Koch was able to cultivate this species by inoculating wood with a suspension of ascospores and incubating it on a bed of sand. After a lengthy incubation period ascomata were produced. Biflua physasca is one of three marine ascomycetes (Dryosphaera, Marisolaris) that all possess small, coriaceous, light coloured cleistothecial ascomata with sterile appendages, are found on wood associated with sand with variously appendaged ascospores. Jones et al. (2015) classify Biflua physasca as a basal group of Ascomycetes incertae sedis.


Mushroom Research Foundation 
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