Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot.., 67: 1185


Ascomycetes insertae sedis




Dryosphaera Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot., 67: 1184.

Type species:

Dryosphaera navigans Jorgen Koch & E.B.G. Jones, 1989. Can. J. Bot.., 67: 1185.

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 150-220 um wide, slightly flattened, globose, coriaceous, white-light buff, non-ostiolate, gregarious, erumpent, free, when free attached to the surface with few or many long, rigid, thick-walled, unbranched, pale yellow hyphae 3-4 um in diam. originating from the basal part of the ascomata and often terminating in a branched attachment disc. The entire free surface is covered by numerous short appendages each comprised of a thick-walled stalk 12-14 um high, 5-6 um broad, broader at the base, with a terminal flat crown 12-16 um broad, 4-6 um high, of short, repeatedly divided branches ending in small conical tips. Peridium: membranous, up to 8 um thick, one layered, compressed of 1-(2-3) cells that are flat, thick-walled, and angular with diam. up to 10 μm. Asci: 36-48 x 13-20 um, 8-spored, numerous, in an irregular hymenium on the expanded and lobed upper part upper part of a stem-like structure arising from the base of the ascomata and stretching about one-third up into the centrum, thick-walled, clavate, pedunculate, persistent. Paraphyses: absent. Ascospores:  8-12 x 3-4 μm, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, hyaline, appendaged.  Appendages: thread-like, spirally unfolding from side of spore. Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Koch & Jones (1989)).


Key references:

Andrienko AA (2001) Hoии Ta piДkichi bиД mopcъkиx ґpиib poДy Dryosphaera Koch & Jones з чophoґo mopя. Ukranian Botany Journal 58: 242-247.

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.

Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Moss ST (1986) How do fungal spores attach to surfaces? In: Biodeterioration 6 (eds S Barry, DR Houghton, GC Llewellyn, CE O'Rear), CAB Inter Mycol Inst, The Biodeterioration Society, London, pp. 584-589.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Koch J (1982). Some lignicolous marine fungi from Srilanka. Nord. J. Bot. 2: 163-169.

Koch J, Jones EBG (1989) The identity of Crinigera maritima and three new genera of marine cleistothecial ascomycetes. Can. J. Bot. 67: 1183-1197.

Prasannarai K & Sridhar KR (2001) Diversity and abundance of higher marine fungi on woody substrates along the  West Coast of India. Current Science 81: 303-311.

Rees G, Jones EBG (1985) The fungi of a coastal sand dune system. Bot. Mar. 28: 213-220.


Key to Dryosphaera species:


  1. On Zostera leaves, ascospores 8.6-13.3 x 2.2-3.9 µm, appendages 9.4-17.6 x 0.3-1.1 µm                                D. tenuis
  1. On wood associated with sand                                                                                                                     2
  1. Ascospores 12-15 x 4-5.5 µm                                                                                                                     D. tropicalis
  1. Ascospores 8-12 x 3-5 µm                                                                                                                         D. navigans
Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on intertidal driftwood, incubated wood in the laboratory, especially in contact with sand.
Denmark, Japan, India, Sri Lanka.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: An infrequent species which may be missed in collections due to the small size of the ascomata. However, it has been reported from a number of locations, both temperate and tropical (Koch 1982, Koch & Jones 1989, Prasannarai & Sridhar, 2001, Borse et al. 2012). There is no published sequence data or cultures of Dryosphaera navigans, and it is in need for further collection, isolation and sequencing to determine its taxonomic position. Jones et al. (2015) refer the genus to Ascomycetes incertae sedis. Three Dryosphaera species have been described: D. tenuis from Zostera leaf in the Ukraine (Andrienko 2001) and D. tropicalis on wood in the USA (Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1993). Dryosphaera tropicalis has also been widely collected in India on intertidal mangrove wood and Rhizophora mucronata (see references in Borse et al. 2012). Koch and Jones (1989) have illustrated the intricate ascospore appendages in D. navigans at the scanning electron microscope level and discussed their role in spore attachment to surfaces. The appendagae is initially wrapped around the ascospore, but then unravels to form long threads terminating in balls of sticky material which enables attachment of the ascospore to surfaces (Hyde et al. 1986, Rees and Jones 1984).


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