K.D. Hyde & Borse, Mycotaxon, 26: 263 (1986).


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae






Biatriospora K.D. Hyde & Borse, Mycotaxon, 26: 263 (1986).

Type species:

Biatriospora marina K.D. Hyde & Borse, Mycotaxon, 26: 263 (1986).

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 650-860 µm long, 350-510 µm in diam., lying horizontally, immersed in the substratum, subglobose to pyriform, solitary or gregarious, black, carbonaceous, ostiolate and papillate. Necks: 150-225 µm long, 60-75 µm in diam., canal filled with periphyses. Pseudoparaphyses: 0.6-1.7 µm in diam., numerous, simple, branched, filamentous, hyaline, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci: 175-400 µm long, 22-40 µm in diam., 8-spored, cylindrical, long pedunculate, bitunicate, thick-walled, with an apical apparatus, developing in the hymenium at the base of the ascomata. Ascospores: 55-82 x 16-25 µm, uniseriate, fusiform, 2-4-septate towards each end, non-septate in the centre, not constricted at the septa, hyaline when immature, becoming brown to dark brown at maturity, and provided at each end with a hyaline, globose refractive chamber, 6-8 µm long, 4-6 µm in diam.  Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Hyde & Borse (1986), and Borse et al. (2012)).


Key references:

Borse BD (1988) Frequency of occurrence of marine fungi from Maharashtra coast, India. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 17: 165-167.

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.  

Chinnaraj, S. (1993) Manglicolous fungi from Atolls Maldives, Indian Ocean. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 22: 141-1422.

Hyde KD, Borse BD (1986) Marine fungi from Seychelles V. Biatriospora marina gen. et sp. nov. from mangrove wood. Mycotaxon 26: 263-270.

Hyde KD, Jones, EBG, Liu JK, Ariyawansa H, Boehm E, Boonmee S, et al. (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity. 63(1):1-313.

Jaklitsch WM, Vohlmayr H (2016) Hidden diversity in Thyridaria and a new circumscription of the Thyridariaceae. Studies in Mycology 85:35-64 (2016).

Kolařík M, Spakowicz DJ, Gazis R, Shaw J, Kubátová A, Nováková A et al. (2017) Biatriospora (Ascomycota: Pleosporales) is an ecologically diverse genus including facultative marine fungi and endophytes with biotechnological potential. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 303(1):35-50.

Raveendran K, Manimohan P (2007) Marine fungi of Kerala. Malabar Natural History Soc. 1-270, Kerala, India.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on intertidal wood.
Andaman Islands, Brazil, Brunei, Lakshsdweep Islands, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Philippines, Seychelles, Singapore, Thailand.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: A genus that is widely collected in tropical parts of the world primarily on mangrove substrates (Hyde & Borse 1986, Borse 1988, Chinnaraj, 1993, Raveendran & Manimohan, 2007, Borse et al. 2012). However, only one sequence is available for the type species B. marina (Hyde et al. 2013) and this needs verification by further collections, isolations and sequencing. Five other Biatriospora species have been introduced by Kolařík et al. (2017): B. antibiotica, B. carollii, B. mackinnonii, B. peruviensis, and B. yasuniana. Many of these are endophytes of temperate and tropical angiosperms and possess from marine and estuarine environments. The genus has been referred to a new family Biatriosporacea by Hyde et al. (2013) as it it did not group with any other family in the Pleosporales. However, Jaklitsch & Vohlmayr (2016) dismissed the family Biatriosporacea whose type appears to cluster amongst Nigrograna species and then transferred several Biatrispora species to Nigrograna and introduced the family Nigrogranaceae. These two genera have little in common morphologically and need to be revisited to determine their taxonomic position.


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