Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., 1987a. Bot. Mar., 30: 196.


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Dothideomycetidae


Dothidiales Incertae sedis



Belizeana Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Bot. Mar., 30: 196 (1987).

Type species:

Belizeana tuberculata Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., 1987a. Bot. Mar., 30: 196.

Sexual morph: saprobic, Ascomata: 210-260 µm high, 220-230 µm in diam., subglobose to broadly ampulliform, at first immersed, later erumpent, ostiolate, epapillate or shortly papillate, black and carbonaceous above, light brown and leathery on the sides and base, single or gregarious. Ostioles: up to 20 µm in diam., filled with a tissue of hyaline cells, forming a textura angularis. Peridium: 20-31 µm thick on the sides and base, 37-50 µm around the ostiole, enclosing some deteriorating wood particles, with melanin incrustations in the upper half, hyaline in the lower half, composed of about 9-12 layers of polygonal cells with small lumina. Pseudoparaphyses: 2 µm in diam., simple, rarely branched or anastomosing, embedded in a gelatinous matrix, growing down from the roof of the locule, merging with thinner interascicullar filaments. Asci: 140-155 x 25-29 µm, 8-spored, cylindrical, short pedunculate, thick-walled, fissitunicate, without apical apparatus, with a small ocular chamber, parallel, maturing successively on an ascogenous tissue at the bottom of the locule. Ascospores: 17-24 x 10-15 µm, monostichously in the ascus, broad ellipsoidal, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, hyaline, wall thick, two layered, mature spores with tuberculate ornamentations between the two layers; tubercles 0.7-1.5 µm in diam.; young spores smooth, becoming delicately verruculose during maturation; outer layer eventually gelatinizing and forming a sheath. Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1987) and Borse et al. (2012)).


Key references:

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.

Chinnaraj, S. (1993) Manglicolous fungi from Atolls Maldives, Indian Ocean. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 22: 141-1422.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1987) Marine fungi from Belize with a description of two new genera of ascomycetes. Botanica Marina 30: 195-204.

Sarma VV, Hyde KD (2001) A review of frequently occurring fungi in mangroves. Fungal Diversity 8: 1-34.

Schmit, JP, Shearer CA (2003) A checklist of mangrove associated fungi. Mycotaxon 80: 423-477.

Vittal BPR, Sarma, VV (2006) Diversity and ecology of fungi on mangroves of Bay of Bengal region – An overview. Indian Journal of Marine Science 35:308-317.


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on dead mangrove wood, intertidal wood in mangroves.
Australia, Brazil, Brunei, India, Macau, Malaysia, Saint Croix, Seychelles, Thailand
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: A rare species but never the less recorded from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans on Avicennia marina, Lagunuculari racemosa, Rhizophora spp., Sonneratia griffithii and Xylocarpus granatum (Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1989, Chinnaraj, 1993, Sarma & Hyde 2001, Schmit & Shearer 2003, Vital & Sarma 2006). An unusual species with cylindrical, thick-walled asci and ascospores with a verrucose cell wall, surrounded by a sheath that is sticky. Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1987) referred the species in the Pleosporaceae, Pleosporales based on morphological features. However, Jones et al. (2105) referred it to the Dothideales, but further collections, isolation and sequence data are required to resolve its taxonomic position within the Dothideomycetes.


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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