Curr., Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 9: 119.


Leotiomycetes, Subclass Leotiomycetidae






Amylocarpus Curr., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 9: 122 (1859)

Amylocarpus encephaloides, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., 9: 119.

= Plectolitus acanthosporum Kolhm., Nova Hedwigia, 2: 329 (1960).

Saprobic, sexual morph: Ascomata: 0.3-1.4 mm high, 0.3-3 mm in diam., solitary or gregarious, cleistothecial, ellipsoid or subglobose, erumpent and finally superficial, rarely partly immersed, seated in the substratum with broad subicles, coriaceous or cartilaginous, variously coloured: cream-yellow, yellow or reddish yellow, amber coloured and corny when dried, wall dissolving irregularly above. Peridium: 32-80 µm thick, 2-layered, pseudoparenchymatous on the outside, prosenchymatous on the inside. Paraphyses: absent. Asci: 27-44 x 18-27 µm in the sporogenous part, 8-16 x 3-5.5 µm in the peduncle, 8-spored, broadly clavate or ellipsoidal, apiculate, pedunculate, unitunicate, thin-walled with thickened apical wall, aphyloclastic, without an apical apparatuse, and deliquescing early; ascogenous hyphae and asci scattered irregularly throughtout the ascomata center between sterile hyphae. Ascospores: 8-16 µm in diam. (excluding appendages), hyaline, subglobose to ovoidal, unicellular, appendaged, containing one large oil globule; 10-25 awl-shaped appendages, 5.5-10 x 1 µm, slender, acuminate, rigid, distributed more or less evenly over the ascospore surface.  Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Kohlm.eyer & Kohlmeyer (1979) and Borse et al. (2012)).


Key references:

Björdal CG (2012) Evaluation of microbial degradation of shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea. Biodegradation 70: 126–140.

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine Mycology The Higher Fungi, Academic Press, New York.

Landvik S, Shailer NFJ, Eriksson OE (1996) SSU rDNA sequence support for a close relationship between the Elaphomycetales and the Eurotiales and Onygenales. Mycoscience 37: 237. doi:10.1007/BF02461292

Miller JD, Jones EBG, Mohrir YE, Findlay JA (1985) Colonization of wood blocks by marine fungi in Langstone Harbour. Bot. Mar. 28: 251-257.

Prasannarai K, Sridhar KR (2001) Diversity and abundance of higher marine fungi on woody substrates along the west coast of India. Current Science 81(3): 304-311.

Rees G, Jones EBG (1984) Observations on the attachment of spores of marine fungi. Bot. Mar. 27: 145-160.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on intertidal wood.
Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Germany, India, Norway, Sweden, UK, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: A frequently collected species generally in temperate climates, often occurring with freshwater following into the sea. However, Prasannarai & Sridhar (2001) have collected it on intertidal wood at Karnataka, West coast of India. Landvik et al. (1996) indicated that Amylocarpus encephaloides, showed affinities to the Leotiales, but later referred to the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes) by Jones et al. (2015). This species has been used in a number of experimental studies: spore adhesion (Rees and Jones 1984), ultrastructure of ascospores and their appendages (McKeown et al. 1996), decay of wood (Björdal 2012), and secondary metabolite production (Miller et al. 1985).


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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