Hohnk, 1954. Veroff. Inst. Meereforsch. Bremerhaven, 3: 30 (1954)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Arenariomyces Hohnk, Veroff. Inst. Merresforchung, Bremerhaven 3: 30 (1954).

Arenariomyces trifurcatus Hohnk, 1954. Veroff. Inst. Meereforsch. Bremerhaven, 3: 30 (1954)

= Halosphaeria trifurcata (Hohnk) Cribb & J.W. Cribb, Uni. Queen. Pap. Bot. Dept., 3: 99 (1956).

Peritrichospora trifurcata (Hohnk) Kohlm., Nova Hedwigia, 3: 89 (1961).

≡ Corollospora trifurcata (Hohnk) Kohlm., Ber. Deuts. Bot. Ges., 75: 126 (1962).

Saprobic, Ascomata: 100-325 µm in diam., globose or subglobose, immersed or superficial, often flattened at the base and seated with subicula on grains of sand or calcareous animal shells, with or without ostioles, papillate or epapillate, carbonaceous or rarely coriaceous, black or dark brown, sometimes covered by short, brown hyphae, solitary or rarely gregarious. Peridium: 5-18 µm thick, composed of dark, thick-walled cells, roundish at the outside, oblong toward the center, forming a textura angularis; subicula prosenchymatous. Necks: up to 30 µm long, conical or subcylindrical. Catenophyses: thin-walled, polygonal or rounded cells, filling venter of young ascomata, deliquescing at spore maturity; cell walls with pit like thickenings, connecting plasmatic strands of neighboring cells. Asci: 60-80 x 19-23 µm, 8-spored, fusiform or subclavate, short pedunculate, unitunicate, thin-walled, aphysoclastic, early deliquescing; originating from an ascogenous tissue in the base of the ascomata venter. Ascospores: 24-39 x 7-17 µm (excluding appendages), fusiform, ellipsoidal or oblong, 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, hyaline, appendaged, at both ends with 3 or 4 terminal or subterminal appendages. Appendages: 15-39 x 1.5-2 µm, slender, attenuate, rigid, curved, sometimes with an apical thickening (Description based on Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer (1979) and Borse et al. (2012)).


Key references:

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012) Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Jones EBG, Ju WT, Lu CL, Guo SY, Pang KL (2017) The Halosphaeriaceae revisited. Botanica Marina (In press).

Koch J (1974) Marine fungi on driftwood from the west coast of Jutland, Denmark. Friesia 10: 209-250.

Kohlmeyer J (1971) Eine neuer Ascomycet auf Hydrozoen im Südatlantik. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 83: 505-509. 

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Sakayaroj J, Pang KL, Jones EBG (2011) Multi-gene phylogeny of the Halosphaeriaceae: its ordinal status, relationships between genera and morphological character evolution. Fungal Divers.46: 87-109.


Key to Arenariomyces species:

1 Ascospores 3-septate                                                                                                                       A. triseptatteus

1 Ascospores 1-septate                                                                                                                       2

2 Ascospores narrower than 6 µm wide, 16-18 x 3-4 µm                                                                        A. parvulus

2 Ascospores wider than 7 µm                                                                                                             3

3 Ascomata smooth, with 3 appendages                                                                                               4

3 Ascomata with spines on the peridium, ascospores with 3 or 4 appendages at each apex                       A. majusculu

4 Ascospores 24-38 x 7-16 µm                                                                                                            A. trifurcatus

4 Ascospores 18–21.4–24 × 8–10.2–12 μm                                                                                          A. truncatellus


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on driftwood especially in contact with sand, dead mangrove wood, dead mangrove leaves, dead seaweeds, dead seagrasses, sand.
Saprobic on intertidal wood and sand grains, ascospores accumulate in foam along shore.
Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Canada, Denmark, France, Hawaii, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico, Sierra Leone, Spain, Tobago and Trinidad, Yugoslavia, UK, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
This species is worldwide in distribution and collected in abundance on wood associated with sand (Koch 1974, Borse et al. 2012). Five Arenariomyces species are known: A. majusculus, A. parvulus, A. trifurcatus, A. triseptatus, A. truncatellus, and all have been sequenced (Jones et al. 2017). The genus groups in the Halosphaeriaceae with high boot strap support (Sakayaroj et al. 2011, Jones et al. 2017) and this is accepted by Jones et al. (2015) and Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015).


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