Statzell, Belloch & Fell, FEMS Yeast Research 8 (1): 107 (2008)


Tremellomycetes, Subclass Tremellomycetidae






Sexual morph: Pairs of compatible strains, when mixed on CMA at 22 °C for 5 days, develop sparse hyphae with one or more clamps at the septa. Phragmobasidia form within 5–14 days on the apical hyphal cell and intercalary or laterally on the hyphae. Some hyphae grow at an angle after basidial formation, which results in an angular growth pattern. The basidia are polymorphic lageniform (7 x 27 μm) with longitudinal and transverse septa; navicular (10–13 x 19–21 μm) with one to three transverse septa; four-celled globose (13–19 μm) and ovoid with longitudinal to oblique and transverse septa. The globose basidia occur singly, in pairs and in chains. Germination usually occurs within 1 week when 1-month-old basidia in agar blocks are transferred to 2% water agar. Basidiospores are globose (4–11.3 μm) or ovoid to cylindrical (6–10 x 7.5–11.3 μm). The basidiospores are passively released and may bud to form colonies in the agar. Basidiospores may also bud while attached to the basidium. The mating system appears to be unifactorial biallelic, as represented by one strain of mating type A and five strains of mating type a. Mating reactions not observed. These non-mating strains could represent a separate sexual incompatibility factor as part of a multiple allelic system. The mating reaction, on Bacto CMA with additional 2% Bacto agar, results in more extensive hyphal development with masses of yeast cells, which appear to be the result of basidiospore replication. Physiological data in Statzell-Tallman et al. (2008). (Description based on Statzell-Tallman et al. (2008)).


Key references:

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72

Kurtzman CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T (2011) The yeasts, a taxonomic study, vol 1–3, 5th edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Statzell-Tallman A, Belloch C, Fell JW (2008) Kwoniella mangroviensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Tremellales, Basidiomycota), a teleomorphic yeast from mangrove habitats in the Florida Everglades and Bahamas. FEMS Yeast Research. 8(1):103-113.

Statzell-Tallman A, Scorzetti G, Fell JW (2010) Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:1978–1984.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
isolated from seawater.
Bahama, Everglades USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Kwoniella comprises some 13 species on variety of substrata, but K. mangrovenis is the only marine species (Mycobank). Strains were isolated from marine waters in mangrove habitats at six locations at geographically dispersed sites in the Bahamas Islands and Shark River Slough, Everglades (Statzell-Tallman et al. 2008). Kwoniella is distinct from other members of Tremellales by a combination of characteristics: lack of ballistospores, ballistoconidia and basidiocarps, and the presence of morphologically variant basidia, which are globose, ovoid or lageniform with longitudinal to oblique and transverse septa and navicular with transverse septa. Molecular sequence analysis of a partial region (D1/D2 domains) of LSU rRNA shows K. mangrovensis forms a sister group to Cryptococcus bestiolae with 99 % bootstrap support, and is closely related to C. dejecticola, C. bestiolae and Bullera dendrophila, but did not mate with any of those species (Statzell Tallman et al. 2008). Some ten species are assigned to Kwoniella, but only K. mangrovensis has been reported from marine habitats (Statzell-Tallman et al. 2010). Kwoniella mangroviensis has a widespread occurrence in mangrove habitats, but a specific ecological role in mangrove habitats is unknown. Accepted genus in Kurtzman et al. (2011) and Jones et al. (2015).


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