(Meyers & R.T. Moore) Kohlm., Mycotaxon 53: 352 (1995)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Sordariomycetidae





Synonymy: ≡ Humicola alopallonella Meyers & R.T. Moore, Am. J. Bot. 47: 346 (1960)

Trichocladium Harz, Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscou 44: 125 (1871)

Type species:

Trichocladium asperum Harz, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 44: 125 (1871)

Marine species:

Trichocladium alopallonellum (Meyers & R.T. Moore) Kohlm., Mycotaxon 53: 352 (1995)

Humicola alopallonella Meyers & R.T. Moore, Am. J. Bot. 47: 346 (1960)

Asexual morph: Hyphae hyaline to light brown, septate, branched. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, resemble non-specialised short lateral vegetative hyphae or conidiophore indistinct, conidia developing directly on hyphae. Conidia 14-24 μm × 7-11 μm, solitary, thick-walled, smooth, straight, 2-4 septate, strongly constricted at the septa, apical cell large subglobose, ellipsoidal, ovoidal to obpyriform, fuscous, reddish-brown to dark brown, basal cell smaller, obconical, light brown. Sexual Morph: Undetermined. (Descriptions based on Pang et al. (2011)).


Key references:

Alias SA, Jones EBG. (2000) Colonization of mangrove wood by marine fungi at Kuala Selangor mangrove stand. In: Aquatic Mycology across the Millennium (Hyde KD, Ho WH, Pointing SB, eds.), Fungal Diversity Press, Hong Kong. pp. 9-21

Alias SA, Jones EBG. (2009) Marine fungi from mangroves of Malaysia. Institute Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. p. 108

Borse BD, (1988) Frequency of occurrence of marine fungi from Maharashtra coast, India. Ind. J. mar. Sci. 17: 165–167.

Johnson TW (1958) Some lignicolous marine fungi from North Carolina coast. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 74: 42-48.

Jones EBG, Alias SA, Pang KL (2013) Distribution of Marine Fungi and Fungus-Like Organisms in the South China Sea and Their Potential Use in Industry and Pharmaceutical Application. Malaysian J. Sci. 32 (SCS Sp’ Issue): 119-130

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1995) Fungi on Juncus roemerianus. 1. Trichocladium medullare sp. nov. Mycotaxon. 53:349-353.

Klaubauf S, Tharreau D, Fournier E, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW, de Vries RP, Lebrun MH. (2014) Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae). Studies in Mycology. 79:85-120

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Pang KL, Jheng JS, Jones EBG. (2011) Marine mangrove fungi of Taiwan. National Taiwan Ocean University Press, Keelung. pp. 131.

Poonyth A., Hyde KD, Peerally A (1999) Intertidal Fungi in Mauritian Mangroves. Botanica Marina 42: 243–252.

Raghukumar S (1973) Marine lignicolous fungi from India. Kavaka 1: 73–85.

Sakayaroj J, Pang KL, Jones EBG (2011) Multi-gene phylogeny of the Halosphaeriaceae: its ordinal status, relationships between genera and morphological character evolution. Fungal Diversity 46: 87-109.

Zámocký M, Tafer H, Chovanová K, Lopandic K, Anna Kamlárová A, Obinger C (2016) Genome sequence of the filamentous soil fungus Chaetomium cochliodes reveals abundance of genes for heme enzymes from all peroxidase and catalase superfamilies. BMC Genomics 17:763-778.


Key to marine Trichocladium species:


       1.Conidia 1-2 (3) septate                                                                                                                                       2

       1.Conidia with more than 3 septa                                                                                                                         3

  1. Conidia 10-22 (-38) x 8-18 μm, apical cell  8.5-15.5 x 7-12 μm, fuscous                                                      T. alopallonellum
  1. Conidia 6.5-14 x 3.5-9 μm, apical cell 6.5-13 x 4-9 μm, dark brown                                                            T. melhae
  1. Conidia with 2-3 septa, 15-20 x 10-13 μm, curved dark brown on Nypa palm                                              T. nypae
  1. Conidia more than 3-septate 4
  1. Conidia 2-5 (-6) septate, 25-32 x 12-17 μm, light brown, slightly constricted at the septa                         T. lignicola
  1. Conidia 2-4 septate, 25-47 x 8-20 μm, reddis-brown, subglobose, markedly constricted at the septa       T. constrictum


Image: Trichocladium alopallonellum. (a) Conidia on wood surface. (b) Dark-coloured conidium strongly constricted at the septa. Scale bar: a=300 μm; b=10 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
dead mangrove wood.
Aldabra, Andaman Islands, Australia, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, England, Egypt, France, Galapagos, Germany, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Liberia, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Nicobar Islands, Norway, Philippines, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Samoa, Scotland, Seychelles, Singapore, Society Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, USA, Wales, Yemen.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Fifty Trichocladium species are listed in MycoBank, a terrestrial genus with five marine species. The genus is polyphyletic with Trichocladium achrasporum referred to the genus Halosphaeriopsis (H. mediosetigera the sexual morph) (Johnson 1958). The sexual morph of T. medullare has priority Kohlmeyeriopsis (K. medullaris, Klaubauf et al. 2014) in the Magnaporthaceae. Trichocladium alopallonella was originally described in Humicola, a genus with one-celled conidia. Conidia of this species are two-celled and were subsequently transferred to Trichocladium (Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1995). Molecular data groups this species in the Halosphaeriaceae with strong support (Sakayaroj et al. 2011, Jones et al. 2015, Maharachchikumbura et al. 215). Trichocladium alopallonella is world-wide in its distribution, occurring on a variety of cellulosic substrata (Raghukumar 1973, Borse 1988, Poonyth et al. 1999, Alias & Jones 2000, 2009, Jones et al. 2013). The classification of Trichocladium in the Chaetomiaceae has been confirmed by Zámocký et al. (2016) as the type species of the genus (T. asperum) groups in this family. However, the genus is undoubtedly polyphyletic and the marine species need to be sequenced to determine if they to belong in the Chaetomiaceae.
  • Fig 1
    Fig 1


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


Sueggestions for improvement of the webiste, corrections or additions should be send to:

Gareth Jones: Email:

Mark Calabon: Email: