Kohlm. & E. Kohlm. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 68: 208 (1977)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Sexual morph: Ascomata 380-440 μm high, 340-450 μm diam., obpyriform to subglobose, brown to black, immersed part lighter-coloured than the exposed neck and top, coriaceous, immersed or partly immersed, ostiolate, papillate. Necks 140-530 μm long, 130-200 μm diam. at the base, 90-110 μm diam. at the apex, periphysate. Peridium 40-60 μm thick, two-layered, forming a textura angularis, outer layer composed of a few layers of polygonal or subglobose dark or light brown cells with small lumina, inner layer composed of 7-10 layers of hyaline cells with large lumina. Asci 160-220 × 34-46 μm, thin-walled, unitunicate, eight-spored, clavate, persistent, thick-walled below the apex, pedicellate. Catenophyses present. Ascospores 32-44 × 18-24 μm, hyaline, broad ellipsoidal, 1-septate, not constricted at the septum, appendaged. Appendages 3-5 μm thick × 6-8(-11) μm diam., bipolar, unfurling into fine thread in water, 0.5-1 μm diam. Aseual morph: Undetermined.

Key references:

Abdel-Wahab MA, Nagahama T (2011). Halosarpheia japonica sp. nov. (Halosphaeriales, Ascomycota) from marine habitats in Japan. Mycological Progress 11: 85-92.

Campbell J, Anderson JL, Shearer CA. (2003). Systematics of Halosarpheia based on morphological and molecular data. Mycologia 95: 530-552.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015). Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Pang KL, Vrijmoed LLP, Kong RYC, Jones EBG. (2003a). Polyphyly of Halosarpheia (Halosphaeriales, Ascomycota): implications on the use of unfurling ascospore appendage as a systematic character. Nova Hedwigia 77: 1-18.

Key to Halosarpheia sensu stricto species:

      1. Ascospores 1-septate, ellipsoidal                                                               2

  1. Ascospores unicellular, globose                                                                 3
  1. Ascospores 32-44 x 18-24 µm                                                                  H. fibrosa

      2. Ascospores 23-32 x 14-18 µm                                                                  H. truliffera

  1. Ascospores unicellular, 15-25 x 14-22 µm                                                 H. unicellularis

      3. Ascospores unicellular, occasionally 1-septate 19–25×16–22 μm                 H. japonica

Other marine Halosarpheia sensu lato species:

Halosarpheia bentotensis Jørg. Koch, Nordic J. Bot. 2(2): 165 (1982)

  1. culmiperda Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss., Mycologia 87(4): 532 (1995)

#H. marina (Cribb & J.W. Cribb) Kohlm., Marine Ecology, [Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica Napoli I] 5(4): 345 (1984)

  1. minuta W.F. Leong, Can. J. Bot. 69(4): 883 (1991)
  2. phragmiticola Poon & K.D. Hyde, Bot. Mar. 41(2): 143 (1998)


Image: Halosarpheia fibrosa. (a) Section of globose ascoma with a long neck. (b) Ascoma neck with short periphyses. (c) Two-layered peridium, outer layer of small cells of textura angularis, inner layer of large cells of textura angularis. (d) Mature, thin-walled, clavate ascus.
(e) Ascospore with bipolar appendages. (f) Unfurling polar appendages. Scale bar: a=100 μm; b, c, d=30 μm; e, f=10 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
dead mangrove wood.
Australia, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Kuwait, Macau, Malaysia, Mauritius, Seychelles, South Africa, Taiwan, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Halosarpheia species occur in freshwater, brackish and marine habitats and currently nine species have been described. Sequence data have shown that the genus is polyphyletic and many species have been transferred to new genera: Ascosacculus, Magnisphaera, Natantispora, Oceanitis, Panorbis and Saagaromyces (Campbell et al. 2003, Pang et al. 2003, Jones et al. 2009). Currently, only four species are recognised in the Halosarpheia sensu stricto, with a further six species awaiting study at the molecular level (Abdel-Wahab & Nagakama 2011; Jones et al. 2015). Halosarpheia fibrosa was described from a mangrove in the Bahamas (Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer 1977) and subsequently found to be widespread in its geographical distribution. It is not a common species and has not been found to colonise decorticated wood exposed in mangrove habitats, suggesting that it is not an early colonizer and perhaps needs the presence of bark for growth. Placement of the genus in the Halosphaeriaceae is supported by molecular data (Jones et al. 2015; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015). Many Halosarpheia species have not been sequenced and further collections are required and studied at the molecular level to resolve their taxonomic status (Pang 2012).
  • Fig 2
    Fig 2


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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