(Hedw.) Fr., Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 2: 158 (1822)







Synonymy: ≡ Lichen atratus Hedw., Descr. micr.-anal. musc. frond. 2: 61 (1798) = Peziza atrata (Hedw.) Schumach., Enum. pl. (Kjbenhavn) 2: 417 (1803) = Lecanidion atratum (Hedw.) Endl., (1830) var. atratum = Lecanidion atratum (Hedw.) Endl., (1830) f. atratum = Lecanidion atratum (Hedw.) Endl., Flora Pason 1: 46 (1830) = Cycledium atratum (Hedw.) Wallr. [as ‘Cycledum atrum’], Fl. crypt. Germ. (Nürnberg) 2: 511 (1833) = Patellaria maura Massee, Bull. Misc. Inf., Kew: 131 (1898) = Bilimbia sublubens Paulson, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 12: 88 (1927) = Bacidia sublubens (Paulson) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univers. 8: 409 (1932)

Sexual morph: Ascomata 0.3-0.9 mm wide, 0.6 mm high, arising singly, initially closed, later opening by a pore to form a flat or convex black disc, apothecioid, superficial, sessile, circular, subgelatinous when moist, margin entire, raised, incurved, outer surface of stalk smooth. Hypothecium 16-40 μm, composed of dark colored, thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium 96-172 × 1-2 μm, paraphysoidal, hyaline, branched above. Asci 92-150 × 14-40 μm, cylindric-clavate, with a stipe, bitunicate, thick-walled, with ocular chamber in apical dome, fissitunicate, eight-spored, J- in Melzer’s reagent. Ascospores 24-48 × 6-24 μm, irregularly biseriate, clavate, slightly curved, not constricted at the septa, 4-9-septate, hyaline, no mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph: Undetermined.

Key references:

Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Ariyawansha H, Liu JK, Binder M, Jayawardene N, Boehm E, Boonmee S et al. (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 63: 1-313.

Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Boehm EWA, Burgess TI, de Gruyter J, et al. (2009) A class-wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology 64: 1-15.

Suetrong S, Jones EBG (2006) Marine discomycetes: a review. Indian Journal Marfine Science 35: 2391-296.

Suetrong S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Sakayaroj J, Phongpaichit S, Tanaka K, Hirayama K, Jones EBG. (2009) Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology 64: 155-173.


Image: Patellaria atrata. (a) Black, disc-shaped apothecia with a curled edge on wood. (b) Section of apothecium seated on wood. (c) One-layered hypothecium of cells of textura angularis. (d) Broad, clavate asci, paraphysoid and peridial cells of textura angularis. (e) Ascospore with 8-septate. Scale bar: a=300 μm; b=100 μm; c, e=10 μm, d=30 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
dead mangrove wood.
Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: This fungus occurs on the dead branches that are still attached to mangrove trees (Suetrong and Jones 2006). The branches are very often not submerged in sea water. In a study by Schoch et al. (2009) and Suetrong et al. (2009), Patellaria atrata nestles in an unsupported clade, in the Patellariaceae (Patellariales) in a sister group to Hysteropatella species. This is also supported in a study by Hyde et al. (2013).
  • Fig 2
    Fig 2


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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