(I. Schmidt) J. Campb., J.L. Anderson & Shearer Mycologia 95: 544 (2003)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae





Synonymy: ≡ Halosphaeria viscosa I. Schmidt, Natur und Naturschutz in Mecklenburg 12: 70 (1974) = Halosarpheia viscosa (I. Schmidt) Shearer & J.L. Crane, Botanica Marina 23: 608 (1981)

Sexual morph: Ascomata 68-(248)-455 μm high, 68-(250)-385 μm diam., globose to subglobose, at first hyaline becoming black, membranous, superficial or immersed, ostiolate. Necks 73-(262)-648 μm high, 18- (36)-54 μm diam., dark at base becoming hyaline at apex, periphysate. Peridium two-layered, composed of an outer layer of cells of textura angularis and an inner layer of elongated cells with large lumina. Catenophyses absent. Asci 36-(65)-114 × 9-(13)-23 μm, thin-walled, unitunicate, eight-spored, ellipsoid to clavate, deliquescing. Ascospores 13-(20)-26 × 4-(7)-8 μm, hyaline, ellipsoidal, thin-walled, 1-septate, appendaged. Appendages bipolar, hamate shorter than the mid-septum, unfurling into fine thread in water. Asexual morph: Undetermined.

Key references:

Campbell J, Anderson JL, Shearer CA. (2003) Systematics of Halosarpheia based on morphological and molecular data. Mycologia 95: 530-552.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Pang KL, Vrijmoed LLP, Kong RYC, Jones EBG. (2003) Polyphyly of Halosarpheia (Halosphaeriales, Ascomycota): implications on the use of unfurling ascospore appendage as a systematic character. Nova Hedwigia 77: 1-18.

Pang KL, Chiang WL, Jheng JS (2012) Morphological evaluation of peridial wall, ascus and ascospore characteristics in the delineation of genera with unfurling ascospore appendages (Halosphaeriaceae). In: Progress in molecular and subcellular biology 53:159-171. 

Schmidt I. (1985) Types and type collections of new higher marine and freshwater fungi from the Baltic Coast. Mycotaxon 24: 419-421.


Image: Panorbis viscosus. (a) Section of immersed ascoma with a periphysate neck. (b) Ascoma neck with periphyses. (c) Two-layered peridium, outer layer of cells of textura angularis, inner layer of elongated cells with large lumina. (d) Thin-walled, clavate ascus. (e)
Thin-walled ascospore with bipolar, unfurling appendages. Scale bar: a=50 μm; b, c=30 μm; d, e=10 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
saprobic on dead mangrove wood, and intertidal drift wood.
Australia, Brunei, China, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mauritius, Philippines, Portugal, Seychelles, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Panorbis viscosus was initially described as a Halosphaeria species (Schmidt 1974) and subsequently transferred to Halosarpheia because of the bipolar unfurling appendages (Shearer and Crane 1981). A phylogenetic study showed that the species did not group in the Halosarpheia sensu stricto clade and a new genus Panorbis was introduced (Campbell et al. 2003). An uncommon species on driftwood species in temperate areas and on mangrove wood in the tropics and not reported widely. Panorbis viscosus resembles Natantispora retorquens morphologically, although they are not phylogenetically related (Campbell et al. 2003). However, the two species can only be morphologically separated by ascospore shape and measurements (Pang et al. 2003; Pang and Jones 2004; Pang et al. 2012). The genus is well paced in the Halosphaeriaceae (Jones et al. 2015; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015) but further collections are required to verify its relationships with other genera with unfurling polar appendages.
  • Fig 2
    Fig 2


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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