(Kohlm. & Kohlm.) Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm. Mycol. Res. 97: 759 (1993)


Sordariomycetes, subclass Hypocreomycetidae





Synonymy: ≡ Hydronectria tethys var. glabra Kohlm., Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli, 1 5: 351 (1984)

Sexual morph. Ascomata 275-380 μm high, 315-460μm diam., subglobose or depressed-ellipsoidal, partly or rarelycompletely immersed, ostiolate, epapillate or clypeoid thickened around the ostiole, fleshy-leathery, orange-yellowish, gregarious, or frequently confluent. Necks 17.5-32.5 μm diam., conical, lined with periphyses, 1-2 μm diam. Peridium above and at the sides 70-75 μm thick, at the base 20-30 μm, two-layered, outer layer composed of irregularly polygonal, thick-walled cells of textura angularis, inner layer of elongate, flattened cells that merge into paraphyses. Apical paraphyses 2 μm diam., septate, in the dome of the venter attached to large isodiametric cells with large lumina, finally deliquescing. Asci 90-105 × 15-23 μm, eight-spored, clavate or subcylindrical, short pedunculate, unitunicate, thin-walled at maturity, without apical apparatus, developing at the base of the ascoma venter. Ascospores 17-26 × 8.5-13 μm, uni- or biseriate, ellipsoidal or ovoid, 1-septate somewhat below the centre, slightly constricted at the septum, hyaline, with about six longitudinal ridges, 0.5-0.8 μm diam., running around the spore from one pole to the other. Asexual morph: Undetermined.

Key references:

Abdel-Wahab MA, Bahkali AH, Jones EBG, Elgorban AM, Abdel-Aziz FA, Hodhod MS, Al-Hebshi MO. (2016) Two new species of Kallichroma (Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales) from Saudi Arabian mangroves. Phytotaxa. 260(1):66-74.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Leong WF, Tan TK, Jones EBG. (1988) Lignicolous marine fungi of Singapore. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 2167-2170.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomcyetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Rossman AY, McKemy JM, Pardo-Schultheiss RA, Schroers HJ. (2001) Molecular studies of the Bionectriaceae using large subunit rDNA sequences. Mycologia 93: 100-110.

Schroers HJ. (2001) A monograph of Bionectria (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae) and its Chonostachys anamorphs. Studies in Mycology 46: 1-214.

Key to Kallichroma species:

  1. Ascomata orange in colour, over 250 μm in size                                        2
  1. Ascomata hyaline, less than 250 μm in size                                               K. ellipsoideum
  1. Ascomata epapillate, asci are always 8-spored                                          3
  1. Ascomata with large globose papillae, asci 3 to 8-spored                           K. asperum
  1. Ascospores with longitudinal ridges on the cell wall                                   K. tethys
  1. Ascospores lack longitudinal ridges on the cell wall                                   K. glabrum

Image: Kallichroma tethys. (a) Section of erumpent, globose ascoma. (b) Two-layered peridium, outer layer of cells of textura angularis, inner layer of elongated cells. (c) Subcylindrical ascus with hyaline ascospores. (d) Bicelled, hyaline ascospore with cells unequal in length. (e)
Ridges on ascospore wall. Scale bar: a=50 μm; b, c, d, e=10 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
dead mangrove wood.
Andaman Islands, Australia, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brunei, East South Africa, Egypt, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Society Islands, Thailand, Taiwan, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: This is a widely-documented mangrove species, found generally on well-rotten, decorticated wood. It is never an early coloniser of wood (Leong et al. 1988, Tan et al. 1989, Alias & Jones 2000). It can be readily identified on wood by the bright orange/red ascomata and differs from K. glabrum by the ridges running along the whole length of the ascospore wall. Molecular data support their placement in the Bionectriaceae, although the most distant genus in the family (Rossman et al. 2001, Schroers 2001). However, the two species need to be sequenced to determine if they are distinct species. Currently, four species are referred to the genus with two recently described species: Kallichroma asperum and K. ellipsoideum from Saudi Arabia mangroves (Abdel-Wahab et al. 2016). Placement in the Bionectriaceae is accepted by Jones et al. (2015)
  • Fig 2
    Fig 2


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