K.D. Hyde Mycological Research (1992)






Pleosporaceae, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae


Falciformispora K.D. Hyde, Mycological Research 96: 26 (1992)

Type and marine species:
Falciformispora lignatilis K.D. Hyde, Mycol Res 96(1): 27 (1992).

MycoBank: MB358910                                                                                                             Facesoffungi: N/A

Saprobic on intertidal mangrove wood. Ascomata 150-270 μm high, 240-360 μm diam., subglobose to ovoid, erumpent and eventually superficial by sloughing off of the upper woody cells, black, coriaceous, ostiolate, epapillate, solitary or gregarious. Peridium up to 36 μm thick, composed of an inner layer of elongate hyaline cells and an outer layer of thick-walled angular or rounded brown cells. Pseudoparaphyses thick, cellular, septate, 2-3 μm wide. Asci 110-136 x 20-32 μm. 8-spored, thick-walled, bitunicate, not staining in Melzer's reagent, pedunculate, with an ocular chamber, with no visible ring and with fissitunicate (sensu Eriksson, 1981) dehiscence, arising from ascogenous tissue at the base of the ascoma. Ascospores 42-50 x 7.5-10 μm. 2-3 seriate. fusiform, hyaline, straight or slightly curved, 6-(7)-8-septate, third cell from the top the largest, slightly constricted at the septa, surrounded by a thin mucilaginous sheath and a single scythe-like appendage at the base. The appendage is mucilaginous, may spread in older specimens and is up to 20-30 μm long.
The description was based on Hyde (1992).

Key to species in the genus:

1a. Ascospores 42-50 x 7.5-10 μm, host decaying mangrove wood
terrestrial oil palm, freshwater decorticated woody debris                       F. lignitalis
1b. On a human host                                                                           2
2a. Ascospores 32–45 × 8.8–11 µm,                                                     F. tompkinsii
2b. Ascospores 30–32 × 9–10 µm,                                                        F. senegalensis

Key references:
Hyde, K.D. 1992. Intertidal mangrove fungi from the west coast of Mexico, including one new genus and two new species. Mycological Research. 96:25-30.

Eriksson O (1981). The families of bitunicate ascomycetes. Opera Botanica 60: 1-220.

Ahmed SA, van de Sande WWJ, Stevens DA, Fahal A, van Diepeningen AD, Menken SBJ, de Hoog GS (2014). Revision of agents of black-grain eumycetoma in the order Pleosporales. Persoonia 33:141-154.

Raja HA, Shearer CA (2008). Freshwater ascomycetes: new and noteworthy species from aquatic habitats in Florida. Mycologia 100(3): 467-489.

Suetrong S, Hyde KD, Zhang Y, Bakhali AH, Jones EBG (2011). Trematosphaeriaceae fam. nov. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Cryptogam Mycol 32(4): 343-358.

Devadatha B, Sarma VV (2018). Pontoporeia mangrovei sp. nov, a new marine fungus from an Indian mangrove along with a new geographical and host record of Falciformispora lignatilis. Curr Res Environ App Mycol 8(2): 238-246.



Figure 1. 6-15: Interference light micrographs of Falciformispora lignatilis. 6-10: Ascospores. Note the various forms of the apical appendage and the mucilaginous sheath. 11-14: Asci. The ascus is provided with an ocular chamber (11), a short peduncle (12) and splits in a fissitunicate fashion (13, 14). 15: Cellular pseudoparaphyses. Bars 10 μm.The figure was taken from Hyde (1992).

Figure 2. Falciformispora lignalitis (PUFD-61, Isotype). a Ascomata superficial on the dead wood of Aegiceras corniculatum. b–d Longitudinal section of ascoma. e Section of peridium. f, g, i Immature and mature asci. h Cellular pseudoparaphyses. j–k Ascospores with scythe like appendage. l–m Ascospores with thin gelatinous sheath. Scale bars: c = 100 μm, d= 50 μm, e-m = 10 μm.
The figure was taken from Devadatha & Sarma (2018).

Figure 3. A-G. Falciformispora lignatilis (holotype). A. Appearance of ascomata on host surface with small papilla. B. Section of immersed ascoma. C-F. Squash mounts showing asci with cellular pseudoparaphyses. The asci are cylindro-clavate. F-G. Ascospores. Note the scythe-like appendage at the base (arrowhead). Scale bars: A-B. = 100 μm, C = 50 μm; D-F = 10 μm.
The figure was taken from Suetrong et al. (2011).

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
on intertidal mangrove wood; decaying wood of Aegiceras corniculatum, terrestrial oil palm Elaeis guineensis, freshwater decorticated woody debris
Mexico, Thailand, USA (Florida), India
Pertinent Literature:
Hyde, K.D. 1992. Intertidal mangrove fungi from the west coast of Mexico, including one new genus and two new species. Mycological Research. 96:25-30.
Falciformispora was formally established by Hyde (1992) as a monotypic genus and was assigned to the Pleosporaceae when compared with Setosphaeria, which has an Exserohilum anamorphic state and is exclusively parasitic on Gramineae. It was considered that the species was more closely related to Chaetomastia than Setosphaeria, and Falciformispora differed in having hyaline ascospores. Raja and Shearer (2008) collected this species from freshwater in Florida., while Suetrong et al. (2009a) reported it from the terrestrial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Thailand. In phylogenetic analysis, Falciformispora forms a well-supported clade with Trematosphaeria pertusa and Halomassarina thalassiae in Trematosphaeriaceae. The genus Carinispora is also similar and may be related (Hyde, 1992). The notes were taken from Suetrong et al (2011).
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