E.B.G. Jones, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48 (2): 287 (1965)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Halonectria E.B.G. Jones, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48 (2): 287 (1965)

Type and marine species:

Halonectria milfordensis E.B.G. Jones, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48 (2): 287 (1965)

Index Fungorum number: 331648                          Faceoffungi number:N/A

Saprobic on marine wood, sexual morph: ascomata perithecial, 162-250 x 162- I80 µm, solitary immersed to partly immersed in the substratum, sometimes superficial due to the erosion of the wood, globose to subglobose, thin-walled, aparaphysate, bright orange to orange brown, no setae, with long necks which protrude from the wood, and measure 108-252(-280) x 30-50(-72) µm. Asci clavate, 8-spored, deliquescing very rapidly at maturity, unitunicate, 21.5-28.5 x 4-6.5 µm. Ascospores 18-28·8 x 2-3.5 µm, hyaline, fusiform, sometimes lunate or falcate, one celled and guttulate. Ascospores lacking appendages. Asexual morph: pycnidial 140-170 µm high, 45-55 µm diam., obpyriform or cylindrical, partly immersed or superficial, ostiolate, coriaceaous, pale reddish brown, solitary or gregarious. Conidiophores elongate, simple producing conidia singly.


Key references:

Jones EBG (1965). Halonectria milfordensis gen. et sp.nov., a marine pyrenomycete on submerged wood. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 48(2): 287–290.

Rossman AY, Samuels GJ, Rogerson CT, Lowen R (19990). Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales. Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 3–238.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Rajeshkumar KC, Hawksowrth DL, Madrid H et al. (2017). Notes for genera: Ascomycota. Fungal Diversity 86: 1–594.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Saprobic on Scots pine test blocks submerged in the sea, driftwood, intertidal wood.
Canada, Denmark, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, UK USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Although Halonectria milfordensis has been collected at various global sites there are no cultures or sequence data available. Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer (1979) referred to the Hypocreaceae but Rossman et al (1999) included it in the Bionectriaceae, although it had little in common with other genera in the family. They pointed out that the immersed ascomata with long necks and elongate aseptate ascospores are not typical of the Hypocrerales. Further collections isolation and sequencing is necessary to resolve the taxonomic position of Halonectria milfordensis. Wijayawardene et al (2017) refer the genus to the Bionectriaceae.


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