Kohlm., 1973. Bot. Mar., 16: 210.


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Dothideomycetidae






Pharcidia Körb., Parerga lichenologica. Ergänzungen zum Systema lichenum Germaniae: 469 (1865)

Type species:

Pharcidia congesta Körb., Parerga lichenologica. Ergänzungen zum Systema lichenum Germaniae: 470 (1865)

Marine species:

Pharcidia rhachiana Kohlm., 1973. Bot. Mar., 16: 210.

Symbiotic, Sexual morph: Ascomata: 52-140 μm high, 70-155 μm diam., solitary, small, globose to ellipsoidal, often apically flattened, ostolate, periphysate, epapillate, dark. Peridium: partially thick around the ostiole, composed of thick-walled, subglobose, or near the center, flattened cells. Paraphyses: numerous, often hanging downward into ascomata cavity. Asci: 8-spored, 29-40 x 9-12.5 μm, elongate-clavate, weakly pedunculate, thick-walled, unitunicate. Ascospores: 12.5-20.5 x 4-5 μm, ellipsoidal or elongate, one-septate in the center, hyaline, without appendages (gelatinous cap-like and at both ends). Asexual morph: pycnidial with conidia/spermatia 1.5 x0.5 μm. Aseptate, hyaline.


Key references:

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012). Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel–Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1–72.

Kohlmeyer J (197). Fungi from marine algae. Botanica Marina. 16:201–215.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979). Marine mycology. The higher fungi. Academic Press, New York, 690 p.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann–Kohlmeyer B (1991). Illustrated key to the filamentous marine fungi. Botanica Marina 34: 1–61.

Körber GW (1865). Parerga lichenologica. Ergänzungen zum Systema lichenum Germaniae.: 385–501.

Vainio EA (1921). Lichenographia Fennia I. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 49(2): 1–274.


Key to the marine Pharcidia species:

1. On calcareous shells of marine molluscs and cirripedes                                                          Ph. balani

1. On the surface of brown algae (Phaeophyta)                                                                        2

2. Ascospores with apical cap–like appendages, ascospores wider than 6 μm                              Ph. laminariicola

2. Ascospores lacking appendages, diameter less than 6 μm                                                      Ph. rhachiana

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Symboitic in lichenoid association with epiphytic blue–green and the brown alga Laminaria digitata. On intertidal mangrove wood
India, Norway.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: The genus contains some 90 names, but many are referred to Stigmidium, or lichen genera such as Arthopyrenia and Lichenodiplis and all are terrestrial apart from three marine species. The marine species have been rarely collected and there is no molecular data to help with their higher order classification. The occurrence of P. rhachiana on intertidal mangrove wood is unlikely, because the fungus occurs as in lichenoid association with epiphytic blue–green and brown alga Laminaria digitata (Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer 1979, Kohlmeyer & Volkmann–Kohlmeyer 1991, Borse et al 2012, Jones et al., 2015).


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


Sueggestions for improvement of the webiste, corrections or additions should be send to:

Gareth Jones: Email:

Mark Calabon: Email: