(Bainier & Sartory) Thom & Church, 1926. The Aspergilli, pp. 147.


Eurotiomycetes, Subclass Eurotiomycetidae





Synonymy: ≡Sterigmatocystis sydowii Bainier & Sartory, Annales Mycologici 11 (1): 25 (1913) =Sterigmatocystis tunetana Langeron, Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot.: 345 (1924) =Aspergillus sydowii var. achlamydosporus Nakaz. et al., J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan: 178 (1934)

Aspergillus P. Micheli ex Haller, Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata: 113 (1768)

Type species:

Aspergillus glaucus (L.) Link, Magazin der Gesellschaft Naturforschenden Freunde Berlin 3 (1): 16, t. 1:23 (1809)

Marine species:

Aspergillus sydowii (Bainier & Sartory) Thom & Church, 1926. The Aspergilli, pp. 147.

Sterigmatocystis sydowii Bainier & Sartory, Annales Mycologici 11 (1): 25 (1913)

=Sterigmatocystis tunetana Langeron, Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot.: 345 (1924)

=Aspergillus sydowii var. achlamydosporus Nakaz. et al., J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan: 178 (1934)

Index Fungorum Number: 279636                         Faceoffungi Number: N/A

Saprobic or parasitic, Asexual morph: Saprobic, parasitic, endophytic, Asexual morph: Colonies on Czapek at 25 C attaining a diam. of 3-4 cm in 2 weeks, velvety sometimes floccose, usually consisting of a dense felt of intensely blue green (Delft blue) conidiophores. Conidial heads blue green, radiate; exudates reddish brown often abundant. Reverse mostly in shades of reddish brown to dark red (marron). Conidiophore stipe up to 500 um in length, hyaline sometimes slightly coloured, smooth-walled. Heads biseriate, vesicles globose, spathulate to subclavate, hyaline up to 20 um in diam. Phialides borne on metulae, 5-7(-10) x 2-3.5 um. Metulae 4-6(-7) x 2-3.5 um. Conidia globose, (2.5)3-4 um in diam., hyaline, conspicuously rough-walled. Reduced conidial heads on short stipes present in the aerial mycelium. On MEA colonies reaching 1.6-2.5 cm in diam. after one week and 4-5 cm in 2 weeks, the bright blue green colour is less pronounced compared to Czapek. Good growth on CREA.  Sexual morph: Undetermined.


Key references to marine Aspergillus species:

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012). Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India. 

Debbab A, Aly, AH, Proksch P (2013). Mangrove derived fungal endophytes – a chemical and biological perception. Fungal Diversity 61: 1–27.

Ebel R (2012). Natural products from marine–derived fungi. In: Marine Fungi and Fungal–like organisms, (ed. Jones EBG, Pang KL), de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 411–440.

Geiser DM, Pitt JI, Taylor JW (1998). Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin–producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proc. Sci. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 388–393.

Hayashi A, Crombie A, Lacey E, Richardson AJ, Vuong D (2016). Aspergillus sydowii marine fungal bloom in Australian coastalaaters, Its metabolites and potential impact on Symbiodinium dinoflagellates. Marine Drugs 14: 59 doi:10.3390/md14030059

Andrew M. Piggott 5 and Gustaaf Hallegraeff 1,*Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel–Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1–72.

Nieves–Rivera AM (2002). Sea fan aspergillosis. What is it? Inoculum. December 2003: 10–13.

Sakayaroj J, Preedanon S, Phongpaichit S, Buatong J, Chaoalit P, Rukachaisirikul V (2012). Diversity of endophytes and marine–derived fungi associated with marine plants and animals. In: Marine Fungi and Fungal–like organisms (ed. Jones EBG, Pang KL), de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 291–344.

Singh P, Wang X, Leng K, Wang G (2012). Diversity and ecology of marine–derived fungi. In: Marine Fungi and Fungal–like organisms (ed. Jones EBG, Pang KL), de Gruyter, Berlin, 383–410.


List of marine Aspergillus species:

# sequence data available

No attempt is made to key these extensive list of species.

1.#A. aculeatus Iizuka,

2.A.amstelodami Thom & Church,awamori Nakaz.,

3.#A. candidus Link,

4. A. carbonarius (Bainier) Thom,

5.#A. carneus Blochwitz,

6. A. clavatus Desm.,

7. A. cervinus Massee,

8. A. chevalieri Thom & Church,

9. A. cristatus Raper & Fennell,

10. A. ficuum (Reichardt) Thom & Currie,

11. A. fischeri Wehmer,

12. #A. flavus Link,

13. #A. foetidus Thom & Raper,

14. #A. fumigatus Fresen.,

15. A. glaucus (L.) Link,

16. #A. gracilis Bainier,

17. A. insuetus (Bainier) Thom & Church,

18. #A. insulicola Montem. & A.R. Santiago,

19. A. kanagawaensis Nehira,

20. A. melleus Yukawa,

21. A. nidulans (Eidam) G. Winter,

22. #A. niger Tiegh.,

23. #A. nomius Kurtzman, B.W. Horn & Hesselt.,

24. A. nutans McLennan & Ducker,

25. #A. ochraceus K. Wilh.,

26. #A. ochraceopetaliformis Bat. & Maia,

27. A. ostianus Wehmer,

28. #A. penicillioides Speg.,

29. A. protuberus Munt.–Cvetk.,

30. A. pseudodeflectus Samson & Mouch.,)

31. A. pulverulentus (McAlpine) Wehmer,

32. A. repens (Corda) Sacc.,

33. #A. restrictus G. Sm.,)

34. #A. ruber Thom & Church,

35. #A. sclerotiorum G.A. Huber,)

36. A. subsessilis Raper & Fennell,

37. #A. sydowii (Bainier & Sartory) Thom & Church,)

38. A. taichungensis Yaguchi, Someya & Udagawa,

39. #A. tamarii Kita,

40. #A. terreus Thom,)

41. A. terricola E.J. Marchal,

42. #A. tubingensis Mosseray,)

43. #A. unguis (Weill & L. Gaudin) Dodge,

44. #A. ustus (Bainier) Thom & Church,

45. #A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tirab.,

46. A. wentii Wehmer,

47. A westerdijkiae Frisvad & Samson

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Parasitic on animal substrates, deep-sea sediments, mangrove wood debris and deep sediment cores.
India, Thailand, UK.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Aspergillus species have been widely reported from marine habitats and of the 47+ species listed by Jones et al. (2015), 23 species are supported by sequence data. These have been isolated from a variety of sources, sediments, water column, mangrove debris, as endophytes from maritime plants such as Thalasssia testudinum (Sakayaroj et al. 2012) and sponges (Singh et al. 2012). Many have been designated “marine derived” as it is not known if they are truly marine (Jones et al. 2015) and often isolated in the search for new bioactive compounds (Debbab et al. 2013, Ebel 2012). In the Bahamas, Caribbean, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela widespread mortalities of sea fans (Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum) have been reported (Nieves–Rivera 2002) caused by Aspergillus sydowii (Geiser et al. 1998). Identification of the causal pathogen was determined by a combination of morphology, virulence assays, histopathology, and molecular analysis (Geiser et al. 1998). Thus, these so–called ‘‘terrestrial species’’ could be truly marine and play a major role in the ecology of marine habitats. Hayashi et al. (2016) showed an increased presence of A. sydowii in Australian waters in the wake of a dust storm.


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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