(Linder) G.C. Hughes ex T.W. Johnson & F.K. Sparrow, 1961. Fungi in Oceans and Estuaries, Cramer, p. 391.


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae





Synonymy: =Speira pelagica Linder, Farlowia, 1: 407 (1944). = Speira littoralis Hohnk, Veroff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, 3: 221 (1955).

Dictyosporium Corda, Beiträge zur gesammten Natur- und Heilwissenschaften: 87 (1836)

Type species:

Dictyosporium elegans Corda, Icones fungorum hucusque cognitorum 2: 6, t. 8:29 (1838)

Marine species:

Dictyosporium pelagicum (Linder) G.C. Hughes ex T.W. Johnson & F.K. Sparrow, 1961. Fungi in Oceans and Estuaries, Cramer, p. 391.

=Speira pelagica Linder, Farlowia, 1: 407 (1944).

= Speira littoralis Hohnk, Veroff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, 3: 221 (1955).

Index Fungorum Number:                           Faceoffungi Number:

Saprobic, Asexual morph: Hyphae: 1.3-3.1 µm in diam., septate, ramose, and hyaline to fuscous. Conidiophores: 10-35 µm long, 1.5-2.5 µm in diam., simply or rarely septate, sometimes swollen at the apex, hyaline to light brown. Conidia: 12-66 x 9-28 (-36) µm, ellipsoidal, ovoid, cylindrical, clavate or cheiroid sometimes branched, multiseptate, constricted at the septa; rows of cells arising from a   single basal cell; cells initially in three, rarely two rows, then forming three to eight irregular rows; basal cells 2.5-7.5 µm high, 1.5-9.5 µm in diam.; apical cells 4-10 µm high, 3.5-8.5 µm in diam.; smooth, dark to almost black. Sexual morph: Undetermined.


Key references:

Barghoorn ES, Linder DH (1944). Marine fungi: Their taxonomy and biology. Farlowia 1: 395–467.

Boonmee S, D’souza MJ, Luo Z, Pinruan U, Tanaka K, Su H, Bhat DJ, McKenzie EHC, Jones EBG, Taylor JE, Phillips AJL, Hirayama K, Eungwanichayapant, PD, Hyde KD (2016). Dictyosporiaceae fam. nov. Fungal Diversity. 80:457–482.

Borse BD, Bhat DJ, Borse KN, Tuwas AR, Pawar NS (2012). Marine Fungi of India. Broadway Book Centre, India. 

Höhnk W (1955). Studien zur Brack– und Seewassermykologie. V. Höhere Pilze des submersen Holzes. Veröff. Inst. Meeresf. Bremerhavern 3: 199–227.

Hughes GC (1969). Marine fungi from British Columbia: occurrence and distribution of lignicolous species. Syesis 2: 419–441.

Johnson TW, Sparrow FK (1961). Fungi in oceans and estuaries. J. Cramer, Germany.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel–Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1–72.

Kirschner R, Pang KL, Jones EBG (2013). Two cheirosporous hyphomycete reassessed based on morphological and molecular examination. Mycol Prog 12: 29–36. 


Key to marine species:

1. Conidia 12–66 x 9–28 (–36) μm long, initially 2–3 arms becoming 3–8 irregular arms, lacking hyaline apical cells, appearing muriform       D. pelagicum

1. Conidia 30–50 × 12–30 μm, irregularly cylindrical or oblong, strongly constricted at septa, distinct arms, not muriform                  D. oblongum


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Saprophytic on intertidal and mangrove wood.
Canada, Cameroun, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, New Zealand, Spain, UK, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Dictyosporium elegans was described by both Barghoorn and Linder: Speira pelagica (1944) and Höhnk Speira littoralis (1955), but was subsequentlytransferred to Dictyosporium by Hughes in Johnson & Sparrow (1961). In many ways the morphology of the species does not conform to the diagnosis of Dictyosporium and Hughes (1969) opined that an affinity with Monodictys was more appropriate. Mature conidia are generally muriform and typical cheiroid conidia only observed in early conidial development. This species needs to isolated and sequenced to confirm its placement in Dictyosporium. The species has been widely collected, especially in cooler climates although it has been frequently collected in Indian mangroves (see Borse et al. 2012 for further references). Two marine Dictyosporium species are accepted ( D. oblongum and D. pelagicum. Based on a multi gene study, two other marine species are referred to the genus Jalapriya (Boonmee et al. 2016): Dictyosporium inflatum (=Ja. inflata) and D. toruloides (=Ja. toruloides).


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


Sueggestions for improvement of the webiste, corrections or additions should be send to:

Gareth Jones: Email:

Mark Calabon: Email: