(Kohlm.) Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.


Dothideomycetes, Subclass Pleosporomycetidae





Synonymy: ≡ Didymosphaeria enalia Kohlm., Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 79: 28 (1966)

Ascomata: 295-480 μm high, 140-520 μm diam., subglobose, ampulliform or depressed ellipsoidal, black, carbonaceous, partly or completely immersed, clypeate, solitary, ostiolate, papillate.

Necks: 80-145 μm long, 140-300 μm diam., periphysate.

Peridium: 12.5-17.5 μm thick, one-layered, composed of about six or more layers of irregular roundish or elongate, thick-walled cells, forming a textura angularis

Pseudoparaphyses: 1.5-2 μm diam., septate, rarely branched.

Asci:  117-135 × 12.5-15.5 μm, thick-walled, bitunicate, eight-spored, cylindrical, persistent, pedunculate.

Ascospores: 15.5-23 × 6.5-11 μm, dark brown, ellipsoidal, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, verrucose to verruculose, sometimes with a distinct small, hyaline tubercle at each apex, probably a germ pore.

Culture: -

Anamorph: Undetermined.

Key references:

Alias SA, Jones EBG (2000) Colonization of mangrove wood by marine fungi at Kuala Selangor mangrove stand, Malaysia. In: Aquatic Mycology Across the Millennium. (eds KD Hyde, WH Ho, SB. Pointing). Fungal Divers. 5: 9-21.

Alias SA, Jones EBG (2010) Fungi from Mangroves of Malaysia. Inst. Ocean Earth Sci. Uni., Malaya 1-109.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Divers. 73: 1-72. DOI 10.1007/s13225-015-0339-4

Pang KL, Jheng JS, Jones EBG (2011) Marine mangrove fungi of Taiwan.  National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Chilung, pp. 1-131.

Suetrong S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J, Volkman-Kohlmeyer B, Sakayaroj J, Phongpaichit S, Tanaka K, Hirayama K, Jones EBG (2009) Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes. Stud. Mycol. 64: 155-173.

Tan TK, Leong WF, Jones EBG (1989) Succession of fungi on wood of Avicennia alba and A. lanata in Singapore. Can. J. Bot. 67: 2686-2691.


Image: Verruculina enalia. (a) Section of immersed ascoma. (b) Section of short papillate
neck. (c) One-layered peridium of cells of textura angularis. (d) Mature, cylindrical bitunicate
ascus. (e) Dark brown, bicelled ascospore. (f) Ornamentations on ascospore outer wall. Scale
bar: a=50 μm; b, d=30 μm; c, e, f=10 μm. Photo reproduced with the permission of the National Taiwan Ocean University.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
dead mangrove wood.
Andaman Islands, Australia, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, China, Fiji, Galapagos, Guatemala, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Liberia, Macau, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Society Island, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, USA.
Pertinent Literature:
Mycol. Res. 94: 689 (1990)
Molecular data place this species in the Testudinaceae (Suetrong et al. 2009, Jones et al. 2015) with Ulospora bilgramii and Neotestudina rosatii as a sister group with good support in a combined SSU and LSU rDNA and TEF-1-alpha dataset. Hawksworth & Booth (1974) and von Arx & Muller (1975) favoured the name Zopfiaceae in preference to Testudinaceae. The family is characterized by cleistothecoid ascomata, 1-septate, brown, glabrous or ornamented ascospores, and are mainly isolated from soils. Verruculina enalia is the only marine species in the family and morphologically shares few characters in common with other members in the Testudinaceae. Verruculina enalia is a core mangrove species (Alias & Jones 2010, Pang et al. 2011), a dominant colonizer of mangrove wood, dead roots, prop roots and pneumatophores of trees along the shore. It is also an early colonizer of mangrove wood (Tan et al. 1989, Alias & Jones 2000).
  • Fig 2
    Fig 2


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


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