Kohlm. & R.V. Gessner, Canadian Journal of Botany 54 (15): 1764 (1976)








Buergenerula Syd., Annls Mycol. 34(4-5): 392 (1936)

Type species:

Buergenerula biseptata (Rostr.) Syd., Annls mycol. 34(4/5): 392 (1936)

Metasphaeria biseptata Rostr., Skr. Vidensk Selsk. Christiania, Kl. I, Math. Natur. (no. 4): 24 (1904)

Pseudosphaeria biseptata (E. Rostrup) v. Hohnel, Ann. Mycol. 16: 164. (1918).

Saccothecium biseptata (E. Rostrup) Kirschst. Kryptogamenfl. Mark Brandenburg7, (3): 426. (1938).

Yukonia caricis Sprague, State Univ. Wash., Res. Stud. 30(2): 46. (1962).

Marine species:

Buergenerula spartinae Kohlm. & R.V. Gessner, Canadian Journal of Botany 54 (15): 1764 (1976)

Mycobank number:  Number: MB#310003            Faceoffungi Number: NA

Sexual morph: Leaf spots elongate, brown, perithecia formed in dead greyish central area of spot. Perithecia, immersed, short papillate, globose, conic or depressed, (78-)130-275 µm diam., 90-143 µm high, papilla 26-65 µm high, ostiole periphysate; peridium 10-15 µm wide, of compressed layers of cells, brown externally, hyaline internally, in surface view cells large, pseudoparenchymatous, surrounded by a weft of brown or pallid hyphae; hyphae in leaf tissues ± hyaline, darkened in epidermal cells and forming a small clypeus. Asci 60-110 × 15-22 µm, oblong or clavate, unitunicate, wall firm and thickened toward apex, with cone-shaped apical annulus, refractive in water mounts, chitinoid, nonamyloid, cytoplasm and ascospore contents dextrinoid; paraphyses broadly cellular, thin-walled, fragile. Ascospores (19) 22-27(-30) × 6-8(-10) µm, hyaline, faintly yellowish in mass, fusoid-obovate, inequilateral or slightly curved, asymmetric, 2-septate, not constricted at septa, rarely 1-septate or aseptate, wall smooth, contents guttulate, overlapping biseriate in the ascus. Asexual morph: Conidiogenous cells, short, arising from hyaline hyphae within the epidermal cells of the host and protruding to the leaf surface. Conidia (32-)35-42(-50) × 9-13 µm, blastic and form a low turf on the leaf spot, light yellowish brown, obovate and ± truncate at the apex, tapered to the base, often curved, 1-(rarely 2-) septate above the middle, with a thick smooth wall.

Parasitic or saprobic, sexual morph: Perithecia 300-475 µm high, 200-450 µm diam., subglobose to pyriform, ostiolate, papillate, coriaceous, light brown to dark brown, solitary, immersed. Peridium 30-60 µm thick, two-layered. Pseudoparaphyses 8-10 µm diam. Necks 100-280 µm high, 120-180 diam. Asci 120-190 x 18-20 µm.8-spored, cylindrical, short pedunculate, unitunicate, thick-walled with apical apparatus. Ascospores 37-66 x 9.5-14 µm, biseriate, clavate, thick at the apex, tapering at the base, mostly hyaline. Produces hyphopodia. Asexual morph: Conidial.


Key references:

Arx JA. von., Muller E (1954). Die Gattungen der amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz 11(1): 1–434.

Barr ME (1976). Buergenerula and the physosporellaceae. Mycologia 68(3): 611–621.

Buchan A, Newell SY, Butler M, Biers EJ, Hollibaugh JT, Moran MA. (2003). Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities on decaying salt marsh grass. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 6676–6687.

Barata M. (2002). Fungi on the halophyte Spartina maritima in the salt marsh. In: Hyde KD, ed. Fungi in marine environments. Fungal Divers Res Series 7: 179–193.

da Luz Calado M, Carvalho L, Pang KL. Barata, M. (2015). Diversity and ecological characterization of sporulating higher filamentous marine fungi associated with Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald in two Portuguese salt marshes. Microbial ecology, 70(3): 612–633.

Dennis RWG (1968). British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer, Lehre. 455 pp.

Hohnel F. von (1918) Mykologische Fragmente. CCLXXX. Uber Metasphaeria biseptata Rostrup. Annales Mycologici 16: 163–164.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015). Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Klaubauf S, Tharreau D, Fournier E, Groenewald JZ et al (2014). Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae). Studies in Mycology 79: 85–120.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979). Marine mycology, The higher fungi. Academic press, New York.

Luo J, Zhang N (2013). Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota). Mycologia 105: 1019–1029.

Luttrell ES (1951) Taxonomy of the Pyrenomycetes. University Missouri Studies Science Series 24(3): 1–120.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. (2015). Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199–301.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al (2016) Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79: 1–317.

Muller E (1950). Die schweizerische Anrten der Gattung Leptosphaeria undihrer V erwandten. Sydowia 4: 185–319.

Petrak F (1923). Mykologische Notizen 280. Uber Hyponectria buxi (DC.) Sacc. Annales Mycologici 21: 303–306.

Sprague R (1962). Some fungi on westerns species of Cyperaceae. II. State University Washington research studies 30(2): 45–63.

Sydow H (1936). Mycotheca germanica F asc. LVII-LX (no. 2801-3000). Annales Mycologici 34: 387–401.

Yuan ZL, Lin FC, Zhang CL, Kubicek CP (2010).A new species of Harpophora (Magnaporthaceae) recovered from healthy wild rice (Oryza granulata) roots, representing a novel member of a beneficial dark septate endophyte. FEMS Microbiology Letters 307: 94–101.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
On culms of Spartina spp.
Generally cold-water species, Argentina, Canada, Portugal, Spain, UK., USA.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: The type species Buergenerula biseptata was originally described as Metasphaeria biseptata, from Norway on Carex vesicaria (Barr 1976). Muller (1950) considered Buergenerula to belong in the Pleosporaceae, and this was followed by Dennis (1968), Luttrell (1973), von Arx and Muller (1975). Barr (1976) suggested the taxonomic position of Buergenerula is with members of the Physosporellaceae in the Phyllachorales. Later phylogenetic studies by Yuan et al. (2010), Luo and Zhang (2013), Klaubauf et al. (2014), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015, 2016) confirmed the placement of Buergenerula within Magnaporthaceae (Magnaporthales). Buergenerula spartinae was accepted by Jones et al. (2015) as a marine species that is widely collected on Spartina species (Barata et al. 2002, Buchan et al. 2003, Calado et al. 2012). However, cultures and sequences are unavailable from type species. Holotype O O-F72662.


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