Verkley, Studies in Mycology 50 (2): 330 (2004)




Pleosporales, Sub-order Massarineae




Paraconiothyrium Verkley, Stud. Mycol. 50(2): 327 (2004)

Type species: Paraconiothyrium estuarinum Verkley & Manuela Silva, in Verkley, da Silva, Wicklow & Crous, Stud. Mycol. 50(2): 327 (2004)

Marine species:

Paraconiothyrium cyclothyrioides Verkley, Studies in Mycology 50 (2): 330 (2004)

Asexual morph: saprobic, conidiomata submerged in the agar, or superficial, eustromatic, with a single cavity, mostly complex, irregularly globose or flattened, reddish brown to black, 0.3–1.2(–1.6) mm diam., with several merging cavities, ostioles absent or poorly differentiated; conidiomatal wall composed of a 30–75 µm thick outer layer of isodiametric and irregular cells with reddish brown walls thickened up to 2 µm, and a 25– 50(–65) µm thick inner layer of textura angularis with cells 3–10 µm diam. with hyaline walls thickened up to 1 µm. The surface of the conidiomatal wall sometimes clothed by a diffuse network of brown entangling hyphae. Conidiogenous cells  integrated in very compact conidiophores, rarely discrete in masses of cells protruding into the cavity, ampulliform to subcylindrical, hyaline, indeterminate, phialidic, periclinal thickening and collarette indistinct, sometimes with one or two percurrent proliferations, mostly 4.5–8  2.5–4 m. Conidia 1-celled, short-cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, rounded at both ends, with one or two very small, polar guttules, with thin and smooth walls which are hyaline at secession, but soon become yellowish brown, on OA (2.5–)3–4.2(–5)  (1–)1.2– 1.5(–1.8) m, (2.5–)3–4.8(–6)  (1–)1.2–1.6(–2) m on MEA (all diffuse daylight). Sexual morph: Undetermined.


Key references:

Ariyawana HA, Tanaka K, Thambugala KM, Phookamasak R, Tian Q, Camporesi E, Hongsanan W, Monkai J, Wanasinghe DN, Mapook, Chileatirote E, Kang JC, Xu JC, McKenzie EHC, Jones EBG, Hyde KD (2014) A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Didymosphaeriaceae (= Montagnulaceae). Fungal Divers 68: 699–104.

Verkley GJM, da Silva M, Wicklow DT, Crous PW (2004) Paraconiothyrium, a new genus to accommodate the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans, anamorphs of Paraphaeosphaeria, and four new species. Studies in Mycology. 50(2): 323–336.

Camara MPS, Palm ME, Van Berkum P, Stewart EL (2001) Systematics of Paraphaeosphaeria: a molecular and morphological approach. Mycological Research 105: 41–56. 

Camara MPS, Ramaley AW, Castlebury LA, Palm ME (2003) Neophaeosphaeria and Phaeosphaeriopsis, segregates of Paraphaeosphaeria. Mycological Research 107: 516–522 [PubMed].

Wang Jie, Cui Lijiao (2015) Naozhou Island in the South China Sea produced extracellular proteases in the intertidal diversity of culturable marine fungi. Microbiology 42 (2): 238–253.


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Isolated from marine sediments and terrestrial soil.
Papua New Guinea, Naozhou Island, South China Sea.
Pertinent Literature:
Notes: Verkley et al. (2014) introduced the genus Paraconiothyrium with four new species, P. estuarinum, P. brasiliense, P. cyclothyrioides, and P. fungicola, whose sexual morphs are not known. The genus appears to be paraphyletic and was referred to the family Montagnulaceae (Pleosporales), but they proposed that it should not be split up into further genera. The genus shares this lineage with the genus Paraphaeosphaeria s. str. as emended by Câmara et al. (2003). Later, Ariyawansa et al. (2014) introduced Paraconiothyrium magnolia and the sexual morph of Paraconiothyrium fuckelii, which brings the total number of species to 25. Paraconiothyrium cyclothyrioides has been isolated from intertidal water Naozhou island in the South China Sea (Wang & Cui 2015).


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


Sueggestions for improvement of the webiste, corrections or additions should be send to:

Gareth Jones: Email:

Mark Calabon: Email: