K.D. Hyde, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 110(2): 102 (1992)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Xylariomycetidae






Frondicola K.D. Hyde, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 110(2): 100 (1992)

Type species:

Frondicola tunitricuspis K.D. Hyde, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 110(2): 102 (1992)

Index Fungorum Number: IF357594                         Faceoffungi Number:

Sexual morph: saprobic, ascomata on host fronds as light coloured raised circular spots, up to 0.96 mm diam., with small central ostiolar dots, covered with a thin layer of light brown crust-like material (hyphae); in section lenticular, developing beneath the host epidermis cells with overlaying clypeus and variable development of stromatic tissue laterally. Ascocarps one per clypeus, 340-620 µm in diam. x 155-280 µm high, ostiolar canal periphysate. Peridium 8.5-25.5 µm thick, brown, at the sides composed of thin-walled elongate cells, fusing with stromatic tissue at the top, at the base composed of thick-walled cells with large lumina forming a textura epidermoidea and fusing with host cells. Between the sides and the base a wedge of thin-walled brown hyphae is present forming a textura porrecta. Paraphyses up to 6 µm thick, simple, septate, tapering towards the apex, longer than asci. Asci 144-181 x 7.1-11.3 µm, 8-spored, cylindrical, short-pedunculate, thin-walled, unitunicate, with an apical apparatus, not staining blue in Melzer’s reagent, developing from the base of the ascocarp. Ascospoes 17-26 x 4.8-7.1 µm, uniseriate, hyaline, 1-celled, developing up to three pseudosepta, ellipsoidal, with a mucilaginous sheath with 3 or 4 extensions. Mucilaginous envelope 12-13 µm thick at the ascospore poles and 9-12 µm at the mid region/Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Hyde (1992)).


Key references:

Barr ME (1990) Prodromus to non-lichenized, pyrenomycetous members of class Hymenoascomycetes. Mycotaxon. 34:43-184.

Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL (1990) Outline of the Ascomycetes-1989. Systema Ascomycetum. 8:119-318.

Hyde KD (1992) Fungi from decaying inter-tidal fronds of Nypa fruticans, including three new genera and four new species. Bot J Linn Soc. 110:95-110.

Jones EBG, Sakayaroj J, Suetrong S, Somrithipol S, Pang KL (2009) Classification of marine Ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Divers 35:1-187.

Maharachchikumbura SN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA, Daranagama DA, Dayarathne M, D’souza MJ, Goonasekara ID, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena RS, Kirk PM, Konta S, Liu JK, Liu Z-Y, Norphanphoun C, Pang KL, Perera RH, Senanayake IC, Shang Q, Shenoy BD, Xiao Y, Bahkali AH, Kang J, Somrothipol S, Suetrong S, Wen T, Xu J (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Divers. 72:199-301.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Bhat DJ, Dayarathne MC, Huang SK, Norphanphoun C, Senanayake IC, Perera RH, Shang QJ, Xiao YP, D’souza MJ, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena RS, Daranagama DA, Konta S, Goonasekara ID, Zhuang WY, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Abdel- Wahab MA, Al-Sadi AM, Bahkali AH, Boonmee S, Boonyuen N, Cheewangkoon R, Dissanayake AJ, Kang JC, Li QR, Liu JK, Liu XZ, Liu ZY, Luangsa-ard JJ, Pang KL, Phookamsak R, Promputtha I, Suetrong S, Stadler M, Wen TC, Wijayawardene NN (2016) Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Divers. 79:1-317.


Image: Frondicola tunitricuspis . (a) Habit. (b) Section through ascocarps. (c) Ascospore. (d) Asci and paraphyses. Scale bars: a=1 mm; b=100 µm; c, d=10 µm.

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
decaying fronds of Nypa fruticans from the intertidal region.
South China Sea (Brunei).
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: The genus Frondicola was established by Hyde (1992) with F. tunitricuspis as the single species. Frondicola tunitricuspis was collected on submerged fronds of the palm Nypa fruticans growing on the coastline in Brunei (Hyde 1992). There are no report of additional species and known asexual morph so far. The ascospores of Frondicola are distinct, being one-celled and provided with a mucilaginous sheath with 3-4 extensions. The asci are cylindrical with a prominent apical apparatus. The fungus occurs amongst other fungi with similar fruiting bodies (i.e. Linocarpon spp.), but can easily be distinguished from these as the raised spots have a central light brown crust-like covering (Hyde 1992). Placement of Frondicola into any family with certainty is difficult (Hyde 1992). Paraphyses and attached asci exclude it from the Diaporthaceae, while the majority of Phyllachoraceae are parasitic and differ in having a soft clypeus and more delicate asci (Hyde 1992). It may be possible to include Frondicola in the Clypeosphaeriaceae (sensu Barr, 1990), although this group is presently synonymous with the Amphisphaeriaceae in Eriksson & Hawksworth (1990). The apical apparatus in Frondicola is Melzer's negative and the genus is therefore excluded from the Amphisphaeriaceae (Hyde 1992). Frondicola has been recently placed in Hyponectriaceae (Jones et al. 2009; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016). There is no sequence data for this species and recollecting, isolating and sequencing is required to determine its taxonomic placement with certainty.
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    Fig 1


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Chiang Rai 


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