Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss., Bot. Mar. 40: 291 (1997)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Juncigena Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss., Bot. Mar. 40: 291 (1997)

Type species:

Juncigena adarca Kohlm., Volkm.-Kohlm. & O.E. Erikss., Bot. Mar. 40: 291 (1997)

Index Fungorum number:                                     Faceoffungi number:

Sexual morph: saprobic ascomata 225-400 μm high (including neck), 135-200 μm wide, subglobose to pyriform, completely submersed under the cortex, ostiolate, papillate, coriaceous, fuscous, single. Neck 85-170 μm long, 50-80 μm in diam., cylindrical, curved, hyaline to light fuscous, ostiolar canal periphysate; ostiole appears as a small dark dot on the surface of the leaf. Peridium 10-20 μηι thick, composed of 8-10 layers of thick-walled ellipsoidal to subglobose cells, forming a textura angularis in longitudinal section, fuscous on the outside, hyaline on the inside. Hamathecium composed of many thin unbranched, septate pseudoparaphyses, attached at the top and bottom. Asci 115-140 × 10-13 μm, eight-spored, fusiform to cylindrical, short stipitate, thin-walled, unitunicate, wall refractive at the apex, with an apical ring, IKI negative, blue in methylene blue; asci do not stain in Congo red, developing successively on the ascogenous tissue at the bottom of the locule. Ascospores 26.5-34.5 × 6-7 μm, uni- to biseriate, fusiform to elongate ellipsoidal, three-septate, constricted at the septa, second cell from the top usually widest, hyaline. Asexual morph: Hyphae 1.5-3 μm in diam., hyaline to light brown, septate, branched; in pure culture producing conidia and multicelled intercalary chlamydospores, but no ascomata; in nature on decaying insect eggs or larvae embedded in Juncus leaves. Conidia developing directly on hyphae or on non-specialized short lateral conidiogenous cells which resemble vegetative hyphae; solitary, irregularly helicoid, light to darker brown, 4-9 septate, consisting of 1-2 hyaline to light brown cylindrical to obtusely conical basal cells and 4-9 brown subglobose to ellipsoidal upper cells, terminal cell usually darkest, strongly constricted at the septa; cells 4-12 μm in diam., increasing in diameter from base to apex, but terminal cell often not the biggest; conidia 0.5 to 1.5 times contorted; spirals 12—25 μm in diam.; in multi-septate conidia the cells are often tightly joined in such a way that the coiled condition is not easily recognizable and the conidia appear to be muriform. Isolates made from ascospores of Juncigena adarca produce the asexual morph (= Cirrenalia adarca) on seawater agar (Description based on Jones et al. (2014)).


Key references:

Abdel-Wahab MA, Pang KL, Nagahama T, Abdel-Aziz F, Jones EBG (2010). Phylogenetic evaluation of anamorphic species of Cirrenalia and Cumulospora with the description of eight new genera and four new species. Mycological Progress 9:537–558.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Cheng WH, Rungjindamai N, Sakayaroj J, Boonyuen N, Somrithipol S, Abdel-Wahab MA, Pang KL (2014). An additional fungal lineage in the Hypocreomycetidae (Falcocladium species) and the taxonomic re-evaluation of Chaetosphaeria chaetosa and Swampomyces species, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Cryptogamae Mycologie 35:119-138.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J, Gessner RV (2011). Buergenerula spartinae sp. nov., an Ascomycete from salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Canadian Journal of Botany 54:1759-1766.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Eriksson OE (1996). Fungi on Juncus roemerianus. New marine and terrestrial ascomycetes. Mycological Research 100: 393-404.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Eriksson OE (1997). Fungi on Juncus roemerianus. 9. New obligate and facultative marine ascomycotina. Botanica Marina 40: 291-300.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015). Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Réblová M, Miller AN, Rossman AY, Seifert KA, Crous PW, Hawksworth et al. (2016). Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA Fungus. 7(1):131-153.


Image: Juncigena adarca. (a) Longitudinal section through ascoma. (b) Longitudinal section through upper part of the ascoma. (c) Longitudinal section through neck. (d) Periphyses. (e) Fig. 5. Mature ascus with 8 ascospores. (f) Upper part of ascus, wall refractive at apex and apical ring. Figs. (g, h) Ascospores. (i, j) Variously shaped conidia of the asexual morph of Juncigena adarca. Scale bar: a-d= 20 µm; e=20 µm; f-h=5 µm; i- j= 10 µm. (From Kohlmeyer et al. 1997).

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Senescent leaves of Juncus roemerianus.
Atlantic coast (U.S.A.: North Carolina).
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Juncigena adarca is reminiscent of Aquamarina speciosa but ascomata of J. adarca are fuscous in color while ascomata in A. speciosa are seagreen in colour. Ascospores of J. adarca are distinctly longer and have a different peridium structure. J. adarca produces the asexual stage in culture while the asexual stage of A. speciosa is unknown (Kohlmeyer et al. 1996, Kohlmeyer et al. 1997). J. adarca superficially resembles Buergenerula spartinae a common marine fungus on Spartina spp. However, B. spartinae has clavate ascospores that are slightly curved in the lower half and wider pseudoparaphyses (Kohlmeyer & Gessner 2011). The asexual morph Moheitospora fruticosae groups with J. adarca with high support and in concurrence with the one name one fungus protocol was transferred to Juncignea (J. fruticosae). Therefore, the genus has two species: J. adarca and J. fruticosae. The latter species is known by its asexual morph only (Abdel-Wahab et al. 2010). The genus is accepted as a member of the Juncigenaceae (Torpedosporales) by Jones et al. (2015), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015) and Réblová et al. (2016).
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