Kohlm., Nova Hedwigia 3: 87 (1961)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Haligena Kohlm., Nova Hedwigia 3: 87 (1961)

Type species:

Haligena  elaterophora Kohlm., Nova Hedwigia 3: 87 (1961)

Index Fungorum number:                                     Faceoffungi number:

Sexual morph: saprobic ascomata 205-580 µm in diameter, globose or ovoid, immersed or superficial, ostiolate, papillate or epapillate, subcoriaceous or subcarbonaceous, black, solitary or gregarious. Peridium 13-29 µm thick, composed on the outside of thick-walled irregular cells, forming a textura epidermoidea. Papillae short or absent, conical; ostiolar canal periphysate. Pseudoparenchyma of thin-walled cells filling venter of young ascocarps; eventually breaking up into catenophyses. Asci 82-184 × 22.5-49.5 µm, eight (rarely four)-spored, clavate and somewhat apiculate, pedunculate, unitunicate, thin-walled, aphysoclastic, without apical apparatuses, early deliquescing; developing at the base of the ascocarp venter on a small-celled ascogenous tissue. Ascospores 24-54.5 ×10-17.5 µm (excluding appendages), biseriate, oblong ellipsoidal, three (rarely up to five)-septate, constricted at the septa, hyaline, appendaged; immature ascospores surrounded by a gelatinous sheath that expands at maturity, remaining attached with a cone-shaped or semiglobose protrusion to both apices; expanded elater-like appendages, curved, attenuate, channeled, spoon-shaped at the base. Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Kohlmeyer (1961)).


Key references:

Campbell J, Anderson JL, Shearer CA (2003) Systematics of Halosarpheia based on morphological and molecular data. Mycologia 95:530–552.

Dupont J, Magnin S, Rousseau F, Zbinden M, Frebourh G, Samadi S, Richer da Forges B, Jones EBG (2009) Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu Islands in the deep Pacific Ocean. Mycological Research 113:1351–1364.

Farrant CA, Jones EBG (1986) Haligena salina: a new marine pyrenomycete. Bot J Linn Soc 93:405–411.

Johnson RG, Jones EBG, Moss ST (1987) Taxonomic studies of the Halosphaeriaceae: Ceriosporopsis, Haligena, and Appendichordella gen. nov. Can J Bot 65:931–942.

Jones EBG (1962) Haligena spartinae sp. nov., a pyrenomycete on Spartina townsendii. Trans Br Mycol Soc 46: 135–144.

Jones EBG, Le Campion-Alsumard R (1970) Marine fungi on polyurethane covered plates submerged in the sea. Nova Hedwigia 19:567–582.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J (1961) Pilze von der no¨rdlichen Pazifik-ku¨ ste der USA Nova Hedwigia 3:80–86.

Kohlmeyer J (1967) Intertidal and phycophilous fungi from Tenerife (Canary Islands). Transactions of the British Mycological Society 50:137-147.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1965) New marine fungi from mangroves and trees along eroding shorelines. Nova Hedwigia 9:89–104.

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine Mycology: The higher fungi. Academic Press, New York.

Sakayaroj J, Pang KL, Phongpaichi S, Jones EBG (2005) A phylogenetic study of the genus Haligena, Halosphaeriales, Ascomycota. Mycologia 97:804–811.

Shearer CA, Crane JL (1980) Fungi of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries VIII. Ascomycetes with unfurling appendages. Bot Mar 23:607–615.


Image: Haligena elaterophora. (a-d) Ascospores with appendages initially covering the ascospores and expanded at later stages. Bars a=5 μm; b–d=10 μm. (Photo plate from Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer 1979).

Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Intertidal and drifting wood, test panels, bark, or decaying phanerogams of salt marshes, polyurethane. Intertidal and drifting wood, test panels
Atlantic Ocean, Canary Islands, Denmark, Germany, England, Spain, United States, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, United States.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Kohlmeyer (1961) established Haligena Kohlm. to accommodate H. elaterophora Kohlm. The genus is characterized by the long bi-polar strap-like appendages and multiseptate ascospores. Another five species were later assigned to the genus namely: H. amicta, H. salina, H. spartinae, H. unicaudata and H. viscidula (Jones 1962, Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer 1965, Jones & Le Campion-Alsumard 1970, Farrant & Jones 1986). Shearer and Crane (1980) transferred H. spartinae, H. unicaudata and H. viscidula to Halosarpheia because of their hamate polar appendages that uncoil to form long thread-like structures. Based on phylogenetic studies H. spartinae was transferred to Magnisphaera (Campbell et al. 2003), while H. unicaudata and H. viscidula were transferred to Oceanitis (Doupent et al. 2009). Johnson et al. (1987) established the genus Appendichordella to accommodate H. amicta that differs from the type species H. elaterophora by having appendages that arise from the episporium at various points in the spore wall, while appendages in H. elaterophora are polar and arising as outgrowths of the ascospore wall. Sakayaroj et al. (2005) established Morakotiella to accommodate H. salina that differs from the type species in ascospore size, septation and especially appendage morphology; appendages spoon-shaped at the base, initially coiled and attached closely to the spore wall and separating to form a long thread-like filament (Farrant & Jones 1986). Currently the genus Haligena is a monotypic. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
  • Fig 1
    Fig 1


Mushroom Research Foundation 
Chiang Rai 


Sueggestions for improvement of the webiste, corrections or additions should be send to:

Gareth Jones: Email:

Mark Calabon: Email: