Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Bot. Mar. 30(3): 200 (1987)


Sordariomycetes, Subclass Hypocreomycetidae






Swampomyces Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Bot. Mar. 30(3): 198 (1987)

Type species:

Swampomyces armeniacus Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm., Bot. Mar. 30(3): 200 (1987)

Sexual morph: saprobic ascomata 370-450 μm high, 290-370 μm in diameter, subglobose, totally immersed in the Substrate, ostiolate, periphysate, epapillate, clypeate, coriaceous, light brown (except for the black clypeus), intimately connected with heavily decomposed wood particles, single. Ostiolar canal 40-75 μm in diameter, conical, filled with 2-7 μm thick periphyses. Clypeus 45-100 μm thick, black, surrounding the ostiole, enclosing deteriorating host cells. Peridium 14-15 μm thick, almost hyaline, composed of 5-8 layers of fiat cells with narrow lumina. Paraphyses 1.3-1.8 μm thick, simple, rarely branched, embedded in a gelatinous matrix, between and above the asci, merging with periphyses in the ostiolar canal. Asci 99-132×13-17 μm, 8-spored, cylindrical, short pedunculate, persistent, unitunicate, not bluing in IKI, treatment with ink produces a slightly staining blue zone in the very tip of the wall, arising from a thin ascogenous tissue at the base and along the sides of the locule. Ascospores 13.3-19.5×6-8.9 μm, monostichously to distichously in the ascus, broad ellipsoidal, 1-septate, not constricted at the septum, hyaline to yellowish, appearing light apricot-colored in masses, smooth. Asexual morph: Undetermined (Description based on Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer (1987)).


Key references:

Chinnaraj S (1993) Higher marine fungi from mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sydowia 45(1):109-115.

Hyde KD, Nakagiri A (1992) Intertidal fungi from Australia. The genus Swampomyces including S. triseptatus sp. nov. Sydowia 44(2):122-130.

Hyde K D (1990). A comparison of the intertidal mycota of five mangrove tree species. Asian Marine Biology 7:93-107.

Hyde KD, Chalermpongse A, Boonthavikoon T (1990) Ecology of intertidal fungi at Ranong mangrove, Thailand. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 31:17-27.

Hyde KD, Chalermpongse A, Boonthavikoon T (1993) The distribution of intertidal fungi on Rhizophora apiculate. In: the marine biology of the South China Sea. Morton B. ed Hong Kong:643-652.

Jones EBG, Hyde KD (1990) Observations on poorly known mangrove fungi and a nomeclatural correction. Mycotaxon 37:197-201.

Jones EBG, Kuthubutheen AJ (1989) Malyasian mangrove fungi. Sydowia 41:160-169.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Cheng WH, Rungjindamai N, Sakayaroj J, Boonyuen N, Somrithipol S, Abdel-Wahab MA, Pang KL (2014) An additional fungal lineage in the Hypocreomycetidae (Falcocladium species) and the taxonomic re-evaluation of Chaetosphaeria chaetosa and Swampomyces species, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Cryptogamie Mycologie 35:119-138.

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Diversity 73: 1-72.

Kohlmeyer J, Bebout B, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1995) Decomposition of mangrove wood by marine fungi and teredinids in Belize. P.S.Z.N.I. Marine Ecology 16:27-39.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1987) Marine Fungi from Belize with a descritption of two new genera of Ascomycetes. Botanica Marina 30:195-204.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1991) Marine fungi of Queensland, Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42:91-99.

Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1988) Ophiodeira gen. nov. (Halosphaeriales) and a survey of higher marine fungi from Saint Croix (Virgin Islands). Canadian Journal of Botany 66:2062-2067.

Poonyth AD, Hyde KD, Abed P (1999) Intertidal fungi in Mauritian mangroves. Botanica Marina 42:243-252.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Mckenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199-299.

Ravikumar DR, Vittal BPR (1996) Fungal diversity on decomposing biomass of mangrove plant Rhizophora in Pcihavaram estaury, east coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Science 25:132-144.


Image: Swampomyces egyptiacus, light micrographs from holotype. (a) Vertical section of ascoma immersed in wood. (b) Magnified part of the ascoma shows periphysate neck, peridial wall and the paraphyses connect to the apex of the ascomatal cavity. (c, d) Asci at different stages of maturation. (e) Apical thickening of the ascus (arrowed). (f, g) Ascospores. Scale bar: a=50 µm; b-d=20 µm; e-g=5 µm. (From Abdel-Wahab et al. 2001).


Type & Location:
Other Specimens:
Intertidal wood of mangrove trees, i.e. Avicennia marina, A. germinans, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mangle, R. mucronata, Sonneratia griffithii and Xylocarpus granatum.
Aldabra, Andaman Island, Australia, Belize, Brunei, Egypt, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nicobar island, Saint Croix, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Tamil Nadu India, Thailand.
Pertinent Literature:
NOTES: Phylogenetic analyses based on ribosomal genes placed Swampomyces armeniacus and S. triseptatus in a monophyletic clade with Etheirophora blepharospora and E. unijubata, in Etheirophoraceae (Torpedosporales) (Jones et al. 2014). Placement of the genus in the Etheirophoraceae accepted by Jones et al. (2015) and Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015).